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Chemical Compound Review

Infed     iron(+2) cation

Synonyms: Limonite, Taconite, Ferrous, Malleable iron, ferrous ion, ...
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Disease relevance of Iron divalent ion

  • We hypothesize that in iron-overload disorders, iron accumulation in the heart depends on ferrous iron (Fe2+) permeation through the L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (LVDCC), a promiscuous divalent cation transporter [1].
  • Geobacter metallireducens specifically expresses flagella and pili only when grown on insoluble Fe(III) or Mn(IV) oxide, and is chemotactic towards Fe(II) and Mn(II) under these conditions [2].
  • Experiments with dissimilatory Fe-reducing bacteria of the genus Shewanella algae grown on a ferrihydrite substrate indicate that the delta(56)Fe of ferrous Fe in solution is isotopically lighter than the ferrihydrite substrate by 1.3 per mil [3].
  • Dual mechanism of inhibition of rat liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity by ferrous iron: its potential role in the genesis of porphyria cutanea tarda [4].
  • Zinc tolerance test in uremia. Effect of ferrous sulfate and aluminum hydroxide [5].

Psychiatry related information on Iron divalent ion


High impact information on Iron divalent ion


Chemical compound and disease context of Iron divalent ion


Biological context of Iron divalent ion

  • However, in vivo spectroscopy showed that even without oxidative stress, the three SoxRc proteins failed to accumulate with reduced [2Fe-2S] (< or = 4% compared to > or = 40% for wild type) [12].
  • In the absence of aerobic consumption of oxygen produced by photosynthesis in the ocean, the major sink for this oxygen would have been oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) [20].
  • Alpha-adrenergic agonists that promote platelet aggregation were found to reduce ferric heme to ferrous heme [21].
  • Spectroscopic studies revealed that Cys201 binds ferric heme, whereas His204 is a ferrous heme binding site, indicating the involvement of these residues in sensing the redox state of the heme iron and in generating the oxidative modification [22].
  • Inhibition of viral replication by nitric oxide and its reversal by ferrous sulfate and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites [23].

Anatomical context of Iron divalent ion

  • Iron absorption by the duodenal mucosa is initiated by uptake of ferrous Fe(II) iron across the brush border membrane and culminates in transfer of the metal across the basolateral membrane to the portal vein circulation by an unknown mechanism [24].
  • The activity of heme synthetase, which catalyzes the chelation of ferrous iron to protoporphyrin to form heme, is deficient in sonicates of skin fibroblasts cultured from patients with protoporphyria [25].
  • Premicellar taurocholate enhances ferrous iron uptake from all regions of rat small intestine [26].
  • Calcium significantly diminishes the absorption of ferrous and ferric iron in a dose-related manner, whether the test doses of calcium and radioiron are administered orally or introduced into isolated intestinal segments; the effect is maximal in the duodenum and jejunum [27].
  • FRE1 and FRE2 encode plasma membrane ferric reductases, obligatory for ferric iron assimilation, and FET3 encodes a copper-dependent membrane-associated oxidase required for ferrous iron uptake [28].

Associations of Iron divalent ion with other chemical compounds

  • We find that the reduction by Fe(II) of nitrites and nitrates to ammonia could have been a significant source of reduced nitrogen on the early Earth, provided that the ocean pH exceeded 7.3 and is favoured for temperatures greater than about 25 degrees C [29].
  • The structure of the ferrous dioxygen adduct of P450cam was determined with 0.91 angstrom wavelength x-rays; irradiation with 1.5 angstrom x-rays results in breakdown of the dioxygen molecule to an intermediate that would be consistent with an oxyferryl species [30].
  • Ctr3p is a small intracellular cysteine-rich integral membrane protein that restores high-affinity Cu uptake, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase activity, ferrous iron transport, and respiratory proficiency to strains lacking the CTR1 (Cu transporter 1) gene [31].
  • INTERVENTION--Thirty-seven patients received ferrous sulfate orally four times a day for the duration of their hospitalization [32].
  • The vasorelaxant was scavenged by ferrous myoglobin, was labile, and was neither NO2- nor a cyclooxygenase metabolite [33].

Gene context of Iron divalent ion

  • In particular, APO1 is essentially required for stable accumulation of other plastid-encoded and nuclear-encoded [4Fe-4S] cluster complexes within the chloroplast, whereas [2Fe-2S] cluster-containing complexes appear to be unaffected [34].
  • Yeast expressing IRT1 possess a novel Fe(II) uptake activity that is strongly inhibited by Cd [35].
  • Transfection of TRVb cells or the derivative line TRVb1 (which stably expresses human TfR1) with HFE resulted in lower ferritin levels and decreased Fe(2+) uptake [36].
  • Here we demonstrate that DOXol delocalizes low molecular weight Fe(II) from the [4Fe-4S] cluster of cytoplasmic aconitase [37].
  • These results indicated that NRAMP2 is localized to the late endosomes and lysosomes, where NRAMP2 may function to transfer the endosomal free Fe(2+) into the cytoplasm in the transferrin cycle [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Iron divalent ion


  1. L-type Ca2+ channels provide a major pathway for iron entry into cardiomyocytes in iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Oudit, G.Y., Sun, H., Trivieri, M.G., Koch, S.E., Dawood, F., Ackerley, C., Yazdanpanah, M., Wilson, G.J., Schwartz, A., Liu, P.P., Backx, P.H. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Geobacter metallireducens accesses insoluble Fe(III) oxide by chemotaxis. Childers, S.E., Ciufo, S., Lovley, D.R. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Iron isotope biosignatures. Beard, B.L., Johnson, C.M., Cox, L., Sun, H., Nealson, K.H., Aguilar, C. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Dual mechanism of inhibition of rat liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity by ferrous iron: its potential role in the genesis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Mukerji, S.K., Pimstone, N.R., Burns, M. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Zinc tolerance test in uremia. Effect of ferrous sulfate and aluminum hydroxide. Abu-Hamdan, D.K., Mahajan, S.K., Migdal, S.D., Prasad, A.S., McDonald, F.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. An approach based on quantum chemistry calculations and structural analysis of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin that reveal a redox-linked switch in the electron-transfer process to the Fd-NADP+ reductase. Morales, R., Frey, M., Mouesca, J.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Iron fortification of infant cereals: a proposal for the use of ferrous fumarate or ferrous succinate. Hurrell, R.F., Furniss, D.E., Burri, J., Whittaker, P., Lynch, S.R., Cook, J.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. New method to study oxidative damage and antioxidants in the human small bowel: effects of iron application. Troost, F.J., Saris, W.H., Haenen, G.R., Bast, A., Brummer, R.J. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. A large mouth ulcer, caused by a ferrous sulphate tablet in direct contact with oral mucosa in a patient with senile dementia. Fernández-Viadero, C., Peña Sarabia, N., Verduga, R., Crespo, D. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Twenty-eight-day oral contraceptives: physician and user attitudes. Richards-Brandt, M. Clinical therapeutics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Mapping the position of translational elongation factor EF-G in the ribosome by directed hydroxyl radical probing. Wilson, K.S., Noller, H.F. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Redox signal transduction: mutations shifting [2Fe-2S] centers of the SoxR sensor-regulator to the oxidized form. Hidalgo, E., Ding, H., Demple, B. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The FET3 gene of S. cerevisiae encodes a multicopper oxidase required for ferrous iron uptake. Askwith, C., Eide, D., Van Ho, A., Bernard, P.S., Li, L., Davis-Kaplan, S., Sipe, D.M., Kaplan, J. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular characterization of a copper transport protein in S. cerevisiae: an unexpected role for copper in iron transport. Dancis, A., Yuan, D.S., Haile, D., Askwith, C., Eide, D., Moehle, C., Kaplan, J., Klausner, R.D. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Ferrous sulfate reduces thyroxine efficacy in patients with hypothyroidism. Campbell, N.R., Hasinoff, B.B., Stalts, H., Rao, B., Wong, N.C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of iron-sulfur centers in the iron-molybdenum proteins of nitrogenase. Kurtz, D.M., McMillan, R.S., Burgess, B.K., Mortenson, L.E., Holm, R.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Nitrogen Fixation Special Feature: Flavodoxin hydroquinone reduces Azotobacter vinelandii Fe protein to the all-ferrous redox state with a S = 0 spin state. Lowery, T.J., Wilson, P.E., Zhang, B., Bunker, J., Harrison, R.G., Nyborg, A.C., Thiriot, D., Watt, G.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Chemical mechanisms for cytochrome P-450 hydroxylation: evidence for acylation of heme-bound dioxygen. Sligar, S.G., Kennedy, K.A., Pearson, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of iron therapy on serum ferritin levels in iron-deficiency anemia. Wheby, M.S. Blood (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Aerobic respiration in the Archaean? Towe, K.M. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Epinephrine reduction of heme: implication for understanding the transmission of an agonist stimulus. Peterson, D.A., Gerrard, J.M., Glover, S.M., Rao, G.H., White, J.G. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Involvement of heme regulatory motif in heme-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of IRP2. Ishikawa, H., Kato, M., Hori, H., Ishimori, K., Kirisako, T., Tokunaga, F., Iwai, K. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Inhibition of viral replication by nitric oxide and its reversal by ferrous sulfate and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites. Karupiah, G., Harris, N. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel duodenal iron-regulated transporter, IREG1, implicated in the basolateral transfer of iron to the circulation. McKie, A.T., Marciani, P., Rolfs, A., Brennan, K., Wehr, K., Barrow, D., Miret, S., Bomford, A., Peters, T.J., Farzaneh, F., Hediger, M.A., Hentze, M.W., Simpson, R.J. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Study of factors causing excess protoporphyrin accumulation in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with protoporphyria. Bloomer, J.R., Brenner, D.A., Mahoney, M.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Premicellar taurocholate enhances ferrous iron uptake from all regions of rat small intestine. Sanyal, A.J., Shiffmann, M.L., Hirsch, J.I., Moore, E.W. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Calcium inhibition of inorganic iron absorption in rats. Barton, J.C., Conrad, M.E., Parmley, R.T. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. AFT1: a mediator of iron regulated transcriptional control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yamaguchi-Iwai, Y., Dancis, A., Klausner, R.D. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Prebiotic ammonia from reduction of nitrite by iron (II) on the early Earth. Summers, D.P., Chang, S. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. The catalytic pathway of cytochrome p450cam at atomic resolution. Schlichting, I., Berendzen, J., Chu, K., Stock, A.M., Maves, S.A., Benson, D.E., Sweet, R.M., Ringe, D., Petsko, G.A., Sligar, S.G. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. A widespread transposable element masks expression of a yeast copper transport gene. Knight, S.A., Labbé, S., Kwon, L.F., Kosman, D.J., Thiele, D.J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Iron supplementation after femoral head replacement for patients with normal iron stores. Zauber, N.P., Zauber, A.G., Gordon, F.J., Tillis, A.C., Leeds, H.C., Berman, E., Kudryk, A.B. JAMA (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Activated murine macrophages secrete a metabolite of arginine with the bioactivity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide. Stuehr, D.J., Gross, S.S., Sakuma, I., Levi, R., Nathan, C.F. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. ACCUMULATION OF PHOTOSYSTEM ONE1, a member of a novel gene family, is required for accumulation of [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing chloroplast complexes and antenna proteins. Amann, K., Lezhneva, L., Wanner, G., Herrmann, R.G., Meurer, J. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. A novel iron-regulated metal transporter from plants identified by functional expression in yeast. Eide, D., Broderius, M., Fett, J., Guerinot, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. The hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, lowers intracellular iron levels independently of transferrin receptor 1 in TRVb cells. Carlson, H., Zhang, A.S., Fleming, W.H., Enns, C.A. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. The secondary alcohol metabolite of doxorubicin irreversibly inactivates aconitase/iron regulatory protein-1 in cytosolic fractions from human myocardium. Minotti, G., Recalcati, S., Mordente, A., Liberi, G., Calafiore, A.M., Mancuso, C., Preziosi, P., Cairo, G. FASEB J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Human NRAMP2/DMT1, which mediates iron transport across endosomal membranes, is localized to late endosomes and lysosomes in HEp-2 cells. Tabuchi, M., Yoshimori, T., Yamaguchi, K., Yoshida, T., Kishi, F. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. False-positive stool occult blood tests caused by iron preparations. A controlled study and review of literature. Lifton, L.J., Kreiser, J. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  40. Blocking action of parenteral desferrioxamine on iron absorption in rodents and men. Levine, D.S., Huebers, H.A., Rubin, C.E., Finch, C.A. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Magnetic circular dichroism of ferrous carbonyl adducts of cytochromes P-450 and P-420 and their synthetic models: further evidence for mercaptide as the fifth ligand to iron. Collman, J.P., Sorrell, T.N., Dawson, J.H., Trudell, J.R., Bunnenberg, E., Djerassi, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  42. Neutral thiol as a proximal ligand to ferrous heme iron: implications for heme proteins that lose cysteine thiolate ligation on reduction. Perera, R., Sono, M., Sigman, J.A., Pfister, T.D., Lu, Y., Dawson, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
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