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Chemical Compound Review

Calypsol     2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2- methylamino...

Synonyms: Cetamina, Ketaject, Ketanest, Ketoject, ketamine, ...
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Disease relevance of Ketalar


Psychiatry related information on Ketalar


High impact information on Ketalar


Chemical compound and disease context of Ketalar


Biological context of Ketalar


Anatomical context of Ketalar

  • LKB film autoradiography of 2-]3H]deoxy-D-glucose uptake shows that ketamine, administered in anesthetic doses, alters the pattern of metabolic activity in rat hippocampus [21].
  • The functional influence of the frontal cortex (FC) on the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) was studied in the rat under ketamine anesthesia [22].
  • Simultaneous extracellular recordings were made in the auditory thalamus and cortex of the ketamine-anesthetized cat under several stimulus conditions [23].
  • Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, impair prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in the rat and produce symptoms in humans similar to those observed in schizophrenia and dissociative states, including impaired performance of frontal lobe-sensitive tests [24].
  • The dose-effect curve is considerably flatter with several drugs (diethyl ether, cyclopropane, fluroxene, isoflurane, and ketamine), presumably from sympathetic nervous-system activation [25].

Associations of Ketalar with other chemical compounds

  • Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses [17].
  • METHOD: Healthy subjects (n = 16) completed 4 test days involving the administration of lamotrigine, 300 mg by mouth, or placebo 2 hours prior to administration of ketamine (0.26 mg/kg by intravenous bolus and 0.65 mg/kg per hour by intravenous infusion) or placebo in a randomized order under double-blind conditions [26].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: On each test day, participants received amphetamine (a 1-minute infusion of amphetamine sulfate, 0.25 mg/kg, or saline) and ketamine (a 1-minute intravenous infusion of ketamine, 0.23 mg/kg, followed by a 1-hour infusion of 0.5 mg/kg or an identical saline bolus and infusion) [27].
  • The fast oscillations also appear during the sleep-like EEG patterns of ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, but they are selectively suppressed during the prolonged phase of the slow (<1-Hz) sleep oscillation that is associated with hyperpolarization of cortical neurons [28].
  • Pure-tone-frequency RFs were obtained from adult guinea pigs under general anesthesia (sodium pentobarbital or ketamine) before and repeatedly after (1 hr-8 weeks) a 20- to 30-trial session of pairing a non-best-frequency tone with mild footshock [29].
  • We also observed that during expression of motor effects which are thought to be related to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, ketamine potentiated synaptic efficacy in the prefrontal-accumbens pathway and increased the extracellular levels of glutamate in the NAc [30].

Gene context of Ketalar


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ketalar

  • However, ketamine analgesia remained intact [36].
  • PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy, characteristics of onset/recovery, and safety of ketamine/atropine/midazolam with meperidine/midazolam used as premedication for painful procedures in children with cancer [5].
  • The noncompetitive NMDA antagonists ketamine (10-30 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently impaired the spatial delayed alternation performance compared with the saline-treated control group [37].
  • A thorough dose-response study using microdialysis in conscious rats indicated that low doses of ketamine (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) increase glutamate outflow in the PFC, suggesting that at these doses ketamine may increase glutamatergic neurotransmission in the PFC at non-NMDA glutamate receptors [24].
  • Several specific antagonists, including MK-801, dextrorphan, dextromethorphan, and ketamine, have already been used at low doses in humans for other indications and are potential candidates for Phase I clinical trials [38].


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