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Chemical Compound Review

Gardenal     5-ethyl-5-phenyl-1,3- diazinane-2,4,6-trione

Synonyms: Aephenal, Agrypnal, Phenemal, Hysteps, Luminal, ...
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Disease relevance of Gardenal


Psychiatry related information on Gardenal


High impact information on Gardenal

  • Endothelial cells of the blood and lymphatic vasculature are polarized cells with luminal surfaces specialized to interact with inflammatory cells upon the appropriate stimulation; they contain specialized transcellular transport systems, and their basal surfaces are attached to an extracellular basement membrane [12].
  • Cl(-) secretion in the adult colon relies on luminal CFTR, which is a cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channel and a regulator of other transport proteins [13].
  • Polarized distribution of transport proteins in both luminal and basolateral membranes enables efficient salt transport in both directions, probably even within an individual cell [13].
  • A fiber matrix ultrafilter at the luminal entrance to the clefts is essential if microvascular walls are to retain their low permeability to macromolecules [14].
  • The adherent mucus gel acts as a physical barrier against luminal pepsin and provides a stable unstirred layer that supports surface neutralization of acid by mucosal HCO3-. Surface neutralization by mucosal HCO3- provides a major mechanism of protection against acid in the proximal duodenum [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gardenal

  • At follow-up, the minimal luminal diameter was significantly larger in the group assigned to folate treatment (1.72+/-0.76 vs. 1.45+/-0.88 mm, P=0.02), and the degree of stenosis was less severe (39.9+/-20.3 vs. 48.2+/-28.3 percent, P=0.01) [16].
  • Chenodeoxycholic acid alone or combined with phenobarbital, however, offered a partially effective and safe treatment for asymptomatic radiolucent gallstones [17].
  • Angiographically identified restenosis (stenosis of 50 percent or more of the luminal diameter at follow-up) occurred in 17 percent of the patients in the iridium-192 group, as compared with 54 percent of those in the placebo group (P= 0.01) [18].
  • We also show that vasopressin induces the appearance of coated pits on collecting duct luminal membranes in Brattleboro homozygous rats, which have hereditary diabetes insipidus [19].
  • Cocaine causes acute hepatotoxicity in wild-type mice previously exposed to phenobarbital-like inducers and this toxicity is also absent in the CAR-deficient animals [20].

Biological context of Gardenal


Anatomical context of Gardenal

  • We hypothesized that this condition is caused by the absence of luminal short-chain fatty acids, the preferred metabolic substrates of colonic epithelium [24].
  • Exercise was associated with substantially reduced overall atherosclerotic involvement, lesion size, and collagen accumulation; it also produced much larger hearts and wider coronary arteries, further reducing the degree of luminal narrowing [25].
  • CFTR expression in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the uterus is regulated during the oestrous cycle and is maximal at pro-oestrus [26].
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contains a family of luminal proteins (reticuloplasmins) that are normally excluded from the secretory pathway [27].
  • Messenger RNA was prepared from a hybridoma cell line secreting a monoclonal antibody (53FC3) directed against a luminal epitope of a Golgi membrane protein (Mr = 135 kd) found in rodent cells [28].

Associations of Gardenal with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Gardenal

  • We conclude that ERD2 encodes the receptor that sorts luminal ER proteins [34].
  • The cystic fibrosis gene encodes a cyclic AMP-gated chloride channel (CFTR) that mediates electrolyte transport across the luminal surfaces of a variety of epithelial cells [35].
  • However, the luminal domain has extensively diverged from the yeast gene product. hIre1p expressed in mammalian cells displayed intrinsic autophosphorylation activity and an endoribonuclease activity that cleaved the 5' splice site of yeast HAC1 mRNA, a substrate for the endoribonuclease activity of yeast Ire1p [36].
  • In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a competitive inhibitor of Hmox, increased airway luminal occlusion [37].
  • These data highlight distinct roles of LT alpha and LT alpha beta in lymphoid organogenesis supporting the notion that HEC-6ST-dependent luminal PNAd is under regulation by LT alpha beta [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gardenal

  • Overall, immediately after placement of the stent there was a significant increase in the minimal luminal diameter and a significant decrease in the percentage of the diameter with stenosis (changing from a mean [+/- SD] of 1.88 +/- 0.43 to 2.48 +/- 0.51 mm and from 37 +/- 12 to 21 +/- 10 percent, respectively; P less than 0.0001) [39].
  • This difference resulted from a smaller mean (+/-SD) minimal luminal diameter in the angioplasty group (1.85+/-0.56 mm) than in the stent group (2.04+/-0.66 mm), with a mean difference of 0.19 mm (P=0.01) at follow-up [1].
  • On the contrary, we show by electron microscopy that the prototype chemokine IL-8 is internalized by venular ECs abluminally and transcytosed to the luminal surface [40].
  • An 18-Gy dose not only prevents the renarrowing of the lumen typically observed after successful balloon angioplasty, but actually induces luminal enlargement [41].
  • The primary angiographic end point was the minimal luminal diameter at follow-up, as determined by quantitative coronary angiography [42].


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  7. Chronic stress induces mast cell-dependent bacterial adherence and initiates mucosal inflammation in rat intestine. Söderholm, J.D., Yang, P.C., Ceponis, P., Vohra, A., Riddell, R., Sherman, P.M., Perdue, M.H. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
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  9. Nitric oxide production by human intestinal epithelial cells and competition for arginine as potential determinants of host defense against the lumen-dwelling pathogen Giardia lamblia. Eckmann, L., Laurent, F., Langford, T.D., Hetsko, M.L., Smith, J.R., Kagnoff, M.F., Gillin, F.D. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulation of human upper gastrointestinal motility by rectal distension. Kellow, J.E., Gill, R.C., Wingate, D.L. Gut (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Primidone, phenobarbital, and PEMA: II. Seizure protection, neurotoxicity, and therapeutic index of varying combinations in mice. Bourgeois, B.F., Dodson, W.E., Ferrendelli, J.A. Neurology (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression and function of laminins in the embryonic and mature vasculature. Hallmann, R., Horn, N., Selg, M., Wendler, O., Pausch, F., Sorokin, L.M. Physiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Electrolyte transport in the mammalian colon: mechanisms and implications for disease. Kunzelmann, K., Mall, M. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Microvascular permeability. Michel, C.C., Curry, F.E. Physiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Gastroduodenal mucosal protection. Allen, A., Flemström, G., Garner, A., Kivilaakso, E. Physiol. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. Schnyder, G., Roffi, M., Pin, R., Flammer, Y., Lange, H., Eberli, F.R., Meier, B., Turi, Z.G., Hess, O.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Treatment of gallstones with chenodeoxycholic acid and phenobarbital. Coyne, M.J., Bonorris, G.G., Chung, A., Goldstein, L.I., Lahana, D., Schoenfield, L.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Catheter-based radiotherapy to inhibit restenosis after coronary stenting. Teirstein, P.S., Massullo, V., Jani, S., Popma, J.J., Mintz, G.S., Russo, R.J., Schatz, R.A., Guarneri, E.M., Steuterman, S., Morris, N.B., Leon, M.B., Tripuraneni, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Vasopressin stimulates formation of coated pits in rat kidney collecting ducts. Brown, D., Orci, L. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. The nuclear receptor CAR mediates specific xenobiotic induction of drug metabolism. Wei, P., Zhang, J., Egan-Hafley, M., Liang, S., Moore, D.D. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Debnath, J., Mills, K.R., Collins, N.L., Reginato, M.J., Muthuswamy, S.K., Brugge, J.S. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of antenatal phenobarbital therapy on neonatal intracranial hemorrhage in preterm infants. Shankaran, S., Papile, L.A., Wright, L.L., Ehrenkranz, R.A., Mele, L., Lemons, J.A., Korones, S.B., Stevenson, D.K., Donovan, E.F., Stoll, B.J., Fanaroff, A.A., Oh, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Transmembrane movement of oligosaccharide-lipids during glycoprotein synthesis. Snider, M.D., Rogers, O.C. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Treatment of diversion colitis with short-chain-fatty acid irrigation. Harig, J.M., Soergel, K.H., Komorowski, R.A., Wood, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Reduction of coronary atherosclerosis by moderate conditioning exercise in monkeys on an atherogenic diet. Kramsch, D.M., Aspen, A.J., Abramowitz, B.M., Kreimendahl, T., Hood, W.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. CFTR expression is regulated during both the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the oestrous cycle of rodents. Trezise, A.E., Linder, C.C., Grieger, D., Thompson, E.W., Meunier, H., Griswold, M.D., Buchwald, M. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Perturbation of cellular calcium induces secretion of luminal ER proteins. Booth, C., Koch, G.L. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Microinjection of mRNA coding for an anti-Golgi antibody inhibits intracellular transport of a viral membrane protein. Burke, B., Warren, G. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenobarbital compared with phenytoin for the treatment of neonatal seizures. Painter, M.J., Scher, M.S., Stein, A.D., Armatti, S., Wang, Z., Gardiner, J.C., Paneth, N., Minnigh, B., Alvin, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Interaction of quinidine with anticonvulsant drugs. Data, J.L., Wilkinson, G.R., Nies, A.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency in mice causes a neuropathy resembling that of human hepatic porphyria. Lindberg, R.L., Porcher, C., Grandchamp, B., Ledermann, B., Bürki, K., Brandner, S., Aguzzi, A., Meyer, U.A. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Interaction with vesicle luminal protachykinin regulates surface expression of delta-opioid receptors and opioid analgesia. Guan, J.S., Xu, Z.Z., Gao, H., He, S.Q., Ma, G.Q., Sun, T., Wang, L.H., Zhang, Z.N., Lena, I., Kitchen, I., Elde, R., Zimmer, A., He, C., Pei, G., Bao, L., Zhang, X. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. A C-terminal signal prevents secretion of luminal ER proteins. Munro, S., Pelham, H.R. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. The ERD2 gene determines the specificity of the luminal ER protein retention system. Lewis, M.J., Sweet, D.J., Pelham, H.R. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Regulation of CFTR chloride channels by syntaxin and Munc18 isoforms. Naren, A.P., Nelson, D.J., Xie, W., Jovov, B., Pevsner, J., Bennett, M.K., Benos, D.J., Quick, M.W., Kirk, K.L. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. A stress response pathway from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus requires a novel bifunctional protein kinase/endoribonuclease (Ire1p) in mammalian cells. Tirasophon, W., Welihinda, A.A., Kaufman, R.J. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Reciprocal regulation of airway rejection by the inducible gas-forming enzymes heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase. Minamoto, K., Harada, H., Lama, V.N., Fedarau, M.A., Pinsky, D.J. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Ectopic LT alpha beta directs lymphoid organ neogenesis with concomitant expression of peripheral node addressin and a HEV-restricted sulfotransferase. Drayton, D.L., Ying, X., Lee, J., Lesslauer, W., Ruddle, N.H. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Angiographic follow-up after placement of a self-expanding coronary-artery stent. Serruys, P.W., Strauss, B.H., Beatt, K.J., Bertrand, M.E., Puel, J., Rickards, A.F., Meier, B., Goy, J.J., Vogt, P., Kappenberger, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  40. Transcytosis and surface presentation of IL-8 by venular endothelial cells. Middleton, J., Neil, S., Wintle, J., Clark-Lewis, I., Moore, H., Lam, C., Auer, M., Hub, E., Rot, A. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  41. Endoluminal beta-radiation therapy for the prevention of coronary restenosis after balloon angioplasty. The Dose-Finding Study Group. Verin, V., Popowski, Y., de Bruyne, B., Baumgart, D., Sauerwein, W., Lins, M., Kovacs, G., Thomas, M., Calman, F., Disco, C., Serruys, P.W., Wijns, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. A comparison of balloon-expandable-stent implantation with balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. Benestent Study Group. Serruys, P.W., de Jaegere, P., Kiemeneij, F., Macaya, C., Rutsch, W., Heyndrickx, G., Emanuelsson, H., Marco, J., Legrand, V., Materne, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
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