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Chemical Compound Review

Minprog     7-[(1R,3R)-3-hydroxy-2- [(E,3S)-3...

Synonyms: Caveject, Lipoprost, Liprostin, Prostivas, Vasaprostan, ...
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Disease relevance of alprostadil


Psychiatry related information on alprostadil


High impact information on alprostadil

  • Unlike the agents above, 8-Br-cAMP or PGE1 has no significant effect on protein synthesis, but does induce a small increase in S6 phosphorylation [9].
  • PGE1 also inhibits platelet aggregation, probably through activation of platelet AC [10].
  • The primary prostaglandins exert opposite effects to their own endoperoxide precursors, thus, PGE2 and PGE3 contract, and PGE1 relaxes the bovine coronary arteries [11].
  • Secretion by MBP and EPO was inhibited by 1 microM PGE1, but the nature of the inhibition differed from that observed with thrombin [12].
  • IL-10 also inhibited PGE1- and PGE2-induced IL-6 production [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of alprostadil


Biological context of alprostadil


Anatomical context of alprostadil

  • In our experiments, PGE1 or PGE2 suppressed the generation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the syngeneic mixed lymphocyte tumor cell cultures [22].
  • The observed immunosuppression is critically dependent on PGE1 administration during the period of effector T cell induction [2].
  • PGE1 inhibits effector T cell induction in a dose-dependent, reversible manner, but has no inhibitory effect on fully differentiated DTH effector cells or SRTA-reactive cell lines [2].
  • Perfusion studies were performed in 35 healthy volunteers to investigate further the secretory effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), administered intraluminally, on the human jejunum [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PGE1 administration was cytoprotective for both the liver and gastric mucosa in cirrhotic rats [23].

Associations of alprostadil with other chemical compounds

  • Alterations in differentiation (tyrosinase activity) were determined in cells exposed to either melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH, 10(-7) M), theophylline (10(-3) M), N6,O2'-dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP, 10(-4) M), or prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, 10(-6) M) [24].
  • Hepatic and gastric leukotriene B4, myeloperoxidase and collagen levels were significantly lower in the PGE1-treated compared with vehicle-treated cirrhotic rats [23].
  • During this delay myoblast fusion could be induced by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), by raising extracellular potassium and by addition of carbachol [25].
  • An increase in the rate of entry into S phase also occurred when PGE1 or PGE2 was added 8 or 15 hr after addition of PGF2 alpha [26].
  • The altered response in DS fibroblasts was specific for beta-adrenergic agonists, because treatment of DS or control cells with PGE1 or cholera toxin resulted in the same degree of cyclic AMP accumulation [27].

Gene context of alprostadil

  • In inside-out membrane vesicles derived from insect cells or HEK293 cells, MRP4 catalyzed the time- and ATP-dependent uptake of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and PGE2 [28].
  • The JAK2 inhibitor AG490 blocked phosphorylation of STAT5 and PRL-induced, but not PGE1-induced, Cl- transport [29].
  • Exposure of GH3 cells preloaded with 45Ca to TRH, PGE1, EGF, PMA, or VIP resulted in losses of cell-associated 45Ca [30].
  • Reb suppressed PGE1 -, but not 15d-PGJ2-, induced increase of IL-6 and IL-8 production [31].
  • The potent effects of alprostadil on endothelial VEGF and eNOS synthesis may be useful for patients with HF where endothelial dysfunction is involved in the disease process [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of alprostadil

  • The PGE1 derivative is considerably more effective than PGE1 and shows potent anti-inflammatory activity even after oral administration [19].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) has been used after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) based on limited clinical data suggesting PGE1 infusion improves immediate hepatic allograft function [33].
  • METHODS: One hundred eighteen patients were randomized to receive either PGE1 or crystalloid placebo intravenously after allograft revascularization [33].
  • Initial intensive care unit stay was shorter in patients treated with PGE1 (4.0 +/- 3.6 days) compared with controls (10.5 +/- 17.1 days) (P < 0.01) [33].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one open-chest dogs were randomized to receive a 10-minute intravenous infusion of either liposome diluent (placebo), free PGE1 (2 micrograms/kg), or TLC C-53 (2 micrograms/kg PGE1) after 2 hours of left anterior descending (LAD) occlusion just before reperfusion [34].


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  8. Morphine dependence in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells is associated with adaptive changes in both the quantity and functional interaction of PGE1 receptors and stimulatory G proteins. Ammer, H., Schulz, R. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. EGF, PGF2 alpha and insulin induce the phosphorylation of identical S6 peptides in swiss mouse 3T3 cells: effect of cAMP on early sites of phosphorylation. Martin-Pérez, J., Siegmann, M., Thomas, G. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Do human platelets have opiate receptors? Reches, A., Eldor, A., Vogel, Z., Salomon, Y. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
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  12. Activation of platelets by eosinophil granule proteins. Rohrbach, M.S., Wheatley, C.L., Slifman, N.R., Gleich, G.J. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Interleukin (IL)-10 inhibits long-term IL-6 production but not preformed mediator release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Marshall, J.S., Leal-Berumen, I., Nielsen, L., Glibetic, M., Jordana, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression, function, and regulation of E-type prostaglandin receptors (EP3) in the nonischemic and ischemic pig heart. Hohlfeld, T., Zucker, T.P., Meyer, J., Schrör, K. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Effector function for RAS oncogene in interleukin-3-dependent myeloid cells involves diminished efficacy of prostaglandin E1-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Derigs, H.G., Klingberg, D., Tricot, G.J., Boswell, H.S. Blood (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of neurotransmitters, Guanosine triphosphate, and divalent ions on the regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in malignant and adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate-induced "differentiated" neuroblastoma cells. Prasad, K.N., Gilmer, K.N., Sahu, S.K., Becker, G. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Multiple hormone receptors in the adenylate cyclase of human adrenocortical tumors. Matsukura, S., Kakita, T., Sueoka, S., Yoshimi, H., Hirata, Y., Yokota, M., Fujita, T. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of 40S ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Swiss mouse 3T3 cells. Thomas, G., Siegmann, M., Kubler, A.M., Gordon, J., Jimenez de Asua, L. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Suppression of immune complex vasculitis in rats by prostaglandin. Kunkel, S.L., Thrall, R.S., Kunkel, R.G., McCormick, J.R., Ward, P.A., Zurier, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Activation of rat gastric mucosal adenylyl cyclase by secretory inhibitors. Thompson, W.J., Chang, L.K., Rosenfeld, G.C., Jacobson, E.D. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Further studies on prostaglandin E1-induced jejunal secretion of water and electrolytes in man, with special reference to the influence of ethacrynic acid, furosemide, and aspirin. Matuchansky, C., Mary, J.Y., Bernier, J.J. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. Tumor cell-triggered macrophage-mediated suppression of the T-cell cytotoxic response to tumor-associated antigens. II. Mechanisms for induction of suppression. Ting, C.C., Hargrove, M.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Hepatic and gastric cytoprotective effects of long-term prostaglandin E1 administration in cirrhotic rats. Beck, P.L., McKnight, G.W., Kelly, J.K., Wallace, J.L., Lee, S.S. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Endocrine responsiveness in human melanocytes and melanoma cells in culture. Fuller, B.B., Meyskens, F.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. The control of chick myoblast fusion by ion channels operated by prostaglandins and acetylcholine. Entwistle, A., Zalin, R.J., Bevan, S., Warner, A.E. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 interact with prostaglandin F2alpha to regulate initiation of DNA replication and cell division in swiss 3T3 cells. Otto, A.M., Nilsen-Hamilton, M., Boss, B.D., Ulrich, M.O., Jimenez De Asua, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Down syndrome fibroblasts are hyperresponsive to beta-adrenergic stimulation. McSwigan, J.D., Hanson, D.R., Lubiniecki, A., Heston, L.L., Sheppard, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  28. The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Reid, G., Wielinga, P., Zelcer, N., van der Heijden, I., Kuil, A., de Haas, M., Wijnholds, J., Borst, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) regulates prolactin-mediated chloride transport in mouse mammary epithelial cells through tyrosine phosphorylation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter. Selvaraj, N.G., Omi, E., Gibori, G., Rao, M.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of Ca2+-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation and Ca2+ metabolism in intact pituitary tumor cells by modulators of prolactin production. Brostrom, M.A., Brostrom, C.O., Brotman, L.A., Green, S.S. Mol. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of rebamipide on prostaglandin receptors-mediated increase of inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. Bamba, H., Ota, S., Kato, A., Miyatani, H., Kawamoto, C., Yoshida, Y., Fujiwara, K. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. PGE1 analog alprostadil induces VEGF and eNOS expression in endothelial cells. Haider, D.G., Bucek, R.A., Giurgea, A.G., Maurer, G., Glogar, H., Minar, E., Wolzt, M., Mehrabi, M.R., Baghestanian, M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Prostaglandin E1 administration following orthotopic liver transplantation: a randomized prospective multicenter trial. Klein, A.S., Cofer, J.B., Pruett, T.L., Thuluvath, P.J., McGory, R., Uber, L., Stevenson, W.C., Baliga, P., Burdick, J.F. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Infarct salvage with liposomal prostaglandin E1 administered by intravenous bolus immediately before reperfusion in a canine infarction-reperfusion model. Smalling, R.W., Feld, S., Ramanna, N., Amirian, J., Felli, P., Vaughn, W.K., Swenson, C., Janoff, A. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
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