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Gene Review

CDH2  -  cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD325, CDHN, CDw325, Cadherin-2, N-cadherin, ...
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Disease relevance of CDH2

  • The present study was carried out to investigate the functional significance of N-cadherin in melanoma cells [1].
  • In the present study, E- and N-cadherin, members of the classical cadherin family, are investigated as inducers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is thought to play a fundamental role during the early steps of invasion and metastasis of carcinomas [2].
  • The purpose of the study presented here was to investigate whether a gain in N-cadherin in pancreatic cancer is involved in the process of metastasis via EMT and whether its expression is affected by growth factors [2].
  • This is reflected by the higher concentrations of soluble N-cadherin in prostate cancer patients than in healthy persons [3].
  • The overexpression of N-cad in uterine leiomyomas suggests that this CAM may play a central role in the development of uterine leiomyomas [4].

Psychiatry related information on CDH2


High impact information on CDH2

  • In this issue of Cell, Marambaud et al. report that PS-1 cleaves the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, releasing a C-terminal fragment that promotes degradation of the transcriptional coactivator CBP [7].
  • However, the expression of other components of this cascade (Nodal and Lefty) was unchanged after blocking N-cadherin function, suggesting the existence of parallel pathways in the establishment of left-right morphogenesis [8].
  • N-Cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule involved in establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry [8].
  • Blocking N-cadherin function randomizes heart looping and alters the expression of Snail and Pitx2, later components of the molecular cascade that regulate left-right asymmetry [8].
  • To identify ligands regulating this process, we studied N-cadherin and Ng-CAM/8D9 expression in HVC, a neurogenic region of the canary neostriatum [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of CDH2


Biological context of CDH2


Anatomical context of CDH2


Associations of CDH2 with chemical compounds

  • The method presented here should prove useful for the further investigation of the N-cadherin expression and function in several disease conditions on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues [20].
  • On the other hand, at the transcriptional level, the addition of actinomycin D abolished the cAMP-mediated decrease in N-cadherin mRNA but did not change its stability [21].
  • Gonadotropins regulate N-cadherin-mediated human ovarian surface epithelial cell survival at both post-translational and transcriptional levels through a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway [21].
  • In contrast, monoclonal antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of N-cadherin, the alphavbeta3 integrin, and PECAM-1 failed to inhibit capillary tube formation [22].
  • The src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 also blocked rhFGF-2-promoted N-cadherin expression [23].

Physical interactions of CDH2

  • A truncated mutant of VE-cadherin retaining the full extracellular domain and a short cytoplasmic tail (Arg621-Pro702) lacking the catenin-binding region was able to exclude N-cadherin from junctions [19].
  • Moreover, we show that alpha-actinin coimmunoprecipitates with the N-cadherin/catenin complex in an actin-independent manner [24].
  • Increased cell surface N-cadherin in the disease cells in turn stabilized the continued plasma membrane localization of beta-catenin in the absence of E-cadherin [25].
  • Overall, the results indicate that E- and N-cadherin assemble stoichiometrically different complexes with p120 in the same cells [26].
  • AP-1 transcription factor complex is a target of signals from both WnT-7a and N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion complex during the regulation of limb mesenchymal chondrogenesis [27].

Co-localisations of CDH2

  • Immunostaining experiments revealed that for all the cell types PS1 is present at the plasma membrane and co-localizes with N-cadherin, a component of the cell-cell adhesion complex [28].
  • MOCA colocalizes with N-cadherin and actin in areas of cell-cell and cell substratum contact and is expressed in neuronal processes [29].

Regulatory relationships of CDH2

  • A decapeptide containing the HAV motif of human N-cad partially inhibited Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion and completely prevented BMP-2-induced stimulation of alkaline phosphatase activity by BMCs [30].
  • These results indicate that Sp1/Sp3 and MZF1 are important transcription factors regulating N-cadherin promoter activity and expression in osteoblasts [31].
  • These results suggest that protection of the FGFR-1 from ligand-induced downregulation by N-cadherin enhances receptor signaling and provides a mechanism by which tumor cells can acquire metastatic properties [32].
  • E-, P-, and N-cadherin are co-expressed in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line TW-039 [33].
  • As a result of complex mechanisms of tissue selectivity, N-cadherin is expressed by the developing pleural mesothelial cells and E-cadherin is expressed by the epithelial cells of the lung [34].

Other interactions of CDH2

  • PS1 concentrates at intercellular contacts in epithelial tissue; in brain, it forms complexes with both E- and N-cadherin and concentrates at synaptic adhesions [35].
  • Our present study was designed to determine which domains of N-cadherin make it different from E-cadherin, with respect to altering cellular behavior, such as which domains are responsible for the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased cell motility and invasion [15].
  • Up-regulated expression of zonula occludens protein-1 in human melanoma associates with N-cadherin and contributes to invasion and adhesion [16].
  • Likewise, N-cad mRNA did not change during BMP-2 incubation [30].
  • RT-PCR analysis showed that human osteoblastic cells express MZF1 and that Sp1/MZF1 overexpression increased N-cadherin expression [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CDH2


  1. N-cadherin-mediated intercellular interactions promote survival and migration of melanoma cells. Li, G., Satyamoorthy, K., Herlyn, M. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. N-cadherin expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic carcinoma. Nakajima, S., Doi, R., Toyoda, E., Tsuji, S., Wada, M., Koizumi, M., Tulachan, S.S., Ito, D., Kami, K., Mori, T., Kawaguchi, Y., Fujimoto, K., Hosotani, R., Imamura, M. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Soluble N-cadherin in human biological fluids. Derycke, L., De Wever, O., Stove, V., Vanhoecke, B., Delanghe, J., Depypere, H., Bracke, M. Int. J. Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Classical cadherin and catenin expression in normal myometrial tissues and uterine leiomyomas. Tai, C.T., Lin, W.C., Chang, W.C., Chiu, T.H., Chen, G.T. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Presenilin 1 is involved in maturation and trafficking of N-cadherin to the plasma membrane. Uemura, K., Kitagawa, N., Kohno, R., Kuzuya, A., Kageyama, T., Chonabayashi, K., Shibasaki, H., Shimohama, S. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Psychosis and genes with trinucleotide repeat polymorphism. Sasaki, T., Billett, E., Petronis, A., Ying, D., Parsons, T., Macciardi, F.M., Meltzer, H.Y., Lieberman, J., Joffe, R.T., Ross, C.A., McInnis, M.G., Li, S.H., Kennedy, J.L. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Secrets of a secretase: N-cadherin proteolysis regulates CBP function. Rao, V.R., Finkbeiner, S. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. N-Cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule involved in establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry. García-Castro, M.I., Vielmetter, E., Bronner-Fraser, M. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. N-cadherin and Ng-CAM/8D9 are involved serially in the migration of newly generated neurons into the adult songbird brain. Barami, K., Kirschenbaum, B., Lemmon, V., Goldman, S.A. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of beta1-integrins and N-cadherin in bladder cancer and melanoma cell lines. Laidler, P., Gil, D., Pituch-Noworolska, A., Ciołczyk, D., Ksiazek, D., Przybyło, M., Lityńska, A. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Neoexpression of N-cadherin in E-cadherin positive colon cancers. Rosivatz, E., Becker, I., Bamba, M., Schott, C., Diebold, J., Mayr, D., Höfler, H., Becker, K.F. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Correlation of N-cadherin expression in high grade gliomas with tissue invasion. Asano, K., Duntsch, C.D., Zhou, Q., Weimar, J.D., Bordelon, D., Robertson, J.H., Pourmotabbed, T. J. Neurooncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Involvement of Src family kinases in N-cadherin phosphorylation and beta-catenin dissociation during transendothelial migration of melanoma cells. Qi, J., Wang, J., Romanyuk, O., Siu, C.H. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Coexpression of beta1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V glycoprotein substrates defines aggressive breast cancers with poor outcome. Siddiqui, S.F., Pawelek, J., Handerson, T., Lin, C.Y., Dickson, R.B., Rimm, D.L., Camp, R.L. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. N-Cadherin extracellular repeat 4 mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased motility. Kim, J.B., Islam, S., Kim, Y.J., Prudoff, R.S., Sass, K.M., Wheelock, M.J., Johnson, K.R. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Up-regulated expression of zonula occludens protein-1 in human melanoma associates with N-cadherin and contributes to invasion and adhesion. Smalley, K.S., Brafford, P., Haass, N.K., Brandner, J.M., Brown, E., Herlyn, M. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Genistein-induced neuronal differentiation is associated with activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and upregulation of p21 and N-cadherin. Hung, S.P., Hsu, J.R., Lo, C.P., Huang, H.J., Wang, J.P., Chen, S.T. J. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of novel gene expression targets for the Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) tumor suppressor gene in non-small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma. Agathanggelou, A., Bièche, I., Ahmed-Choudhury, J., Nicke, B., Dammann, R., Baksh, S., Gao, B., Minna, J.D., Downward, J., Maher, E.R., Latif, F. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential localization of VE- and N-cadherins in human endothelial cells: VE-cadherin competes with N-cadherin for junctional localization. Navarro, P., Ruco, L., Dejana, E. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in normal human tissues. Tsuchiya, B., Sato, Y., Kameya, T., Okayasu, I., Mukai, K. Arch. Histol. Cytol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Gonadotropins regulate N-cadherin-mediated human ovarian surface epithelial cell survival at both post-translational and transcriptional levels through a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway. Pon, Y.L., Auersperg, N., Wong, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. VE-Cadherin mediates endothelial cell capillary tube formation in fibrin and collagen gels. Bach, T.L., Barsigian, C., Chalupowicz, D.G., Busler, D., Yaen, C.H., Grant, D.S., Martinez, J. Exp. Cell Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) increases N-cadherin expression through protein kinase C and Src-kinase pathways in human calvaria osteoblasts. Debiais, F., Lemonnier, J., Hay, E., Delannoy, P., Caverzasio, J., Marie, P.J. J. Cell. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Interaction of alpha-actinin with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion complex via alpha-catenin. Knudsen, K.A., Soler, A.P., Johnson, K.R., Wheelock, M.J. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. A polycystin-1 multiprotein complex is disrupted in polycystic kidney disease cells. Roitbak, T., Ward, C.J., Harris, P.C., Bacallao, R., Ness, S.A., Wandinger-Ness, A. Mol. Biol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Endogenous N-cadherin in a subpopulation of MDCK cells: distribution and catenin complex composition. Youn, Y.H., Hong, J., Burke, J.M. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. AP-1 transcription factor complex is a target of signals from both WnT-7a and N-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion complex during the regulation of limb mesenchymal chondrogenesis. Tufan, A.C., Daumer, K.M., DeLise, A.M., Tuan, R.S. Exp. Cell Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. The presenilin 1 deltaE9 mutation gives enhanced basal phospholipase C activity and a resultant increase in intracellular calcium concentrations. Cedazo-Minguez, A., Popescu, B.O., Ankarcrona, M., Nishimura, T., Cowburn, R.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Modifier of cell adhesion regulates N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Chen, Q., Chen, T.J., Letourneau, P.C., Costa, L.d.a. .F., Schubert, D. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Human osteoblasts express a repertoire of cadherins, which are critical for BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation. Cheng, S.L., Lecanda, F., Davidson, M.K., Warlow, P.M., Zhang, S.F., Zhang, L., Suzuki, S., St John, T., Civitelli, R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Sp1/Sp3 and the myeloid zinc finger gene MZF1 regulate the human N-cadherin promoter in osteoblasts. Le Mée, S., Fromigué, O., Marie, P.J. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. A signaling pathway leading to metastasis is controlled by N-cadherin and the FGF receptor. Suyama, K., Shapiro, I., Guttman, M., Hazan, R.B. Cancer Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. E-, P-, and N-cadherin are co-expressed in the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line TW-039. Lou, P.J., Chen, W.P., Lin, C.T., DePhilip, R.M., Wu, J.C. J. Cell. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. The differential expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin distinguishes pleural mesotheliomas from lung adenocarcinomas. Peralta Soler, A., Knudsen, K.A., Jaurand, M.C., Johnson, K.R., Wheelock, M.J., Klein-Szanto, A.J., Salazar, H. Hum. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. Presenilin-1 forms complexes with the cadherin/catenin cell-cell adhesion system and is recruited to intercellular and synaptic contacts. Georgakopoulos, A., Marambaud, P., Efthimiopoulos, S., Shioi, J., Cui, W., Li, H.C., Schütte, M., Gordon, R., Holstein, G.R., Martinelli, G., Mehta, P., Friedrich, V.L., Robakis, N.K. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Simultaneous bilateral breast carcinoma: Histopathological characteristics and CD44/catenin-cadherin profile. Bassarova, A.V., Torlakovic, E., Sedloev, T., Hristova, S.L., Trifonov, D.V., Nesland, J.M. Histol. Histopathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Conversion of cadherin isoforms in cultured human gastric carcinoma cells. Wang, B.J., Zhang, Z.Q., Ke, Y. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. Shifts in cadherin profiles between human normal melanocytes and melanomas. Hsu, M.Y., Wheelock, M.J., Johnson, K.R., Herlyn, M. J. Investig. Dermatol. Symp. Proc. (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Anomalous cadherin expression in osteosarcoma. Possible relationships to metastasis and morphogenesis. Kashima, T., Kawaguchi, J., Takeshita, S., Kuroda, M., Takanashi, M., Horiuchi, H., Imamura, T., Ishikawa, Y., Ishida, T., Mori, S., Machinami, R., Kudo, A. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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