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Gene Review

virF  -  VirF

Yersinia enterocolitica

 
 
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Disease relevance of virF

  • virF-positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica found in migratory birds in Sweden [1].
  • Each ExsA-controlled promoter region contained at least two consensus sites in close proximity, similar to the arrangement of half-sites seen in AraC-controlled (Escherichia coli) or VirF-controlled (Yersinia enterocolitica) promoters [2].
  • This 38-Kda mycobacterial protein designated as VirS exhibits homology with the VirF protein of Shigella, the VirFy protein of Yersinia and the Cfad, Rns and FapR proteins from various enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains [3].
  • Thus, HrpX may regulate Xanthomonas virulence genes since a putative DNA binding domain present in the carboxyl terminal half of HrpX is highly conserved among HrpB, VirF and AraC and since over-expression of the carboxyl terminal half of HrpX in E. coli is lethal [4].
 

High impact information on virF

  • Gene virF encodes a key transcriptional activator of the yop, yadA and ylpA genes [5].
  • Role of the transcriptional activator, VirF, and temperature in the expression of the pYV plasmid genes of Yersinia enterocolitica [5].
  • The transcription activator VirF is a member of a new family of regulators including those of the arabinose and rhamnose operons as well as a regulator of enteric colonization pili [6].
  • Identification of DNA sequences recognized by VirF, the transcriptional activator of the Yersinia yop regulon [7].
  • In this work, we determined the sequences of eight VirF-binding sites from four different genes, by DNase I or hydroxyl radical footprinting [7].
 

Biological context of virF

 

Anatomical context of virF

  • For identification of pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis, each isolate from the three sources (blood, ascitic fluid, and drinking water) was also analysed for the inv gene for Y. pseudotuberculosis and the virF gene for virulent plasmid by PCR [13].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of virF

  • Virulence-associated genes viz. ail, virF, inv, myfA, ystA, ystB, ystC, tccC, hreP, fepA, fepD, fes, ymoA and sat were studied in 81 clinical and nonclinical strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A by PCR amplification [14].

References

  1. virF-positive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica found in migratory birds in Sweden. Niskanen, T., Waldenström, J., Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Olsen, B., Korkeala, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Analyses of the DNA-binding and transcriptional activation properties of ExsA, the transcriptional activator of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S regulon. Hovey, A.K., Frank, D.W. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Analysis, expression and prevalence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homolog of bacterial virulence regulating proteins. Gupta, S., Jain, S., Tyagi, A.K. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Conservation of the hypersensitivity-pathogenicity regulatory gene hrpX of Xanthomonas campestris and X. oryzae. Oku, T., Alvarez, A.M., Kado, C.I. DNA Seq. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of the transcriptional activator, VirF, and temperature in the expression of the pYV plasmid genes of Yersinia enterocolitica. Lambert de Rouvroit, C., Sluiters, C., Cornelis, G.R. Mol. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. The Yersinia yop regulon. Cornelis, G.R., Biot, T., Lambert de Rouvroit, C., Michiels, T., Mulder, B., Sluiters, C., Sory, M.P., Van Bouchaute, M., Vanooteghem, J.C. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of DNA sequences recognized by VirF, the transcriptional activator of the Yersinia yop regulon. Wattiau, P., Cornelis, G.R. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of virC, an operon involved in the secretion of Yop proteins by Yersinia enterocolitica. Michiels, T., Vanooteghem, J.C., Lambert de Rouvroit, C., China, B., Gustin, A., Boudry, P., Cornelis, G.R. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Direct identification of Yersinia enterocolitica in blood by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Feng, P., Keasler, S.P., Hill, W.E. Transfusion (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with limited genetic diversity is a common finding in tonsils of fattening pigs. Niskanen, T., Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Korkeala, H. J. Food Prot. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of the transcription activator virF and the histone-like protein YmoA in the thermoregulation of virulence functions in yersiniae. Cornelis, G.R. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of a trans-regulatory locus required for exoenzyme S synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Frank, D.W., Iglewski, B.H. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular relatedness between isolates Yersinia pseudotuberculosis from a patient and an isolate from mountain spring water. Han, T.H., Paik, I.K., Kim, S.J. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Distribution of virulence-associated genes in Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A correlates with clonal groups and not the source of isolation. Bhagat, N., Virdi, J.S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
 
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