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Gene Review

dharma  -  dharma

Danio rerio

 
 
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High impact information on dharma

  • In this report we have isolated a novel zebrafish homeobox gene, dharma, capable of inducing the organizer ectopically [1].
  • The expression of dharma was first detected in several blastomeres at one side of the margin soon after the mid-blastula transition and continued in the dorsal side of the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) under the embryonic shield, the zebrafish organizer, until the onset of gastrulation [1].
  • A novel homeobox gene, dharma, can induce the organizer in a non-cell-autonomous manner [1].
  • The area affected by the DN-p38 expression did not correlate with the initial cleavage plane, but coincided with the side where dharma/bozozok, a dorsal-specific zygotic gene, was expressed (Yamanaka et al. 1998) [2].
  • Antagonistic role of vega1 and bozozok/dharma homeobox genes in organizer formation [3].
 

Biological context of dharma

  • Injection of RNAs for activated beta-catenin, dominant-negative forms of Axin1 and GSK3beta, and wild-type Dvl3, into the tkk embryos suppressed the ventralized phenotypes and/or dorsalized the embryos, and restored or induced an ectopic and expanded expression of bozozok/dharma and goosecoid [4].
  • The nieuwkoid/dharma homeobox gene is essential for bmp2b repression in the zebrafish pregastrula [5].
  • Furthermore, ectopic expression of nieuwkoid/dharma RNA is sufficient to lead to the down regulation of zbmp2b expression in the pregastrula [5].
  • A single base-pair substitution in the nieuwkoid/dharma gene results in a premature stop codon in boz(m168) mutants, leading to the generation of a truncated protein product which lacks the homeodomain and fails to induce a functional organizer in misexpression assays [5].
  • This promoter region recapitulated the Wnt-dependent and dorsal dharma expression pattern when it was fused to luciferase or GFP [6].
 

Anatomical context of dharma

  • Based on these results, we propose that gastrula organizer specification requires the Nieuwkoop center-like activity mediated by the nieuwkoid/dharma/bozozok homeobox gene and that this activity reveals the role of a much earlier than previously suspected inhibition of ventral determinants prior to dorsal shield formation [5].
  • Furthermore, boz homozygotes feature a loss of neural fates anterior to the midbrain/hindbrain boundary [5].
  • The zebrafish bozozok (boz) gene encoding a homeodomain protein (also named Dharma/Nieuwkoid) is required during blastula stages for the formation of a complete Spemann-Mangold gastrula organizer and subsequent development of axial mesoderm and anterior neural structures [7].
 

Regulatory relationships of dharma

 

Other interactions of dharma

  • Cooperative roles of Bozozok/Dharma and Nodal-related proteins in the formation of the dorsal organizer in zebrafish [9].
  • The vertebrate Vox/Vent family of transcription factors plays a crucial role in the establishment of the dorsoventral (DV) axis, by repressing organizer genes such as bozozok/dharma, goosecoid, and chordino [10].
  • Dharma/Bozozok (Dha/Boz) is a homeodomain protein containing an Engrailed homology (Eh) 1 repressor motif [11].

References

  1. A novel homeobox gene, dharma, can induce the organizer in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Yamanaka, Y., Mizuno, T., Sasai, Y., Kishi, M., Takeda, H., Kim, C.H., Hibi, M., Hirano, T. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Asymmetric p38 activation in zebrafish: its possible role in symmetric and synchronous cleavage. Fujii, R., Yamashita, S., Hibi, M., Hirano, T. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Antagonistic role of vega1 and bozozok/dharma homeobox genes in organizer formation. Kawahara, A., Wilm, T., Solnica-Krezel, L., Dawid, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic evidence for involvement of maternally derived Wnt canonical signaling in dorsal determination in zebrafish. Nojima, H., Shimizu, T., Kim, C.H., Yabe, T., Bae, Y.K., Muraoka, O., Hirata, T., Chitnis, A., Hirano, T., Hibi, M. Mech. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The nieuwkoid/dharma homeobox gene is essential for bmp2b repression in the zebrafish pregastrula. Koos, D.S., Ho, R.K. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of dharma/bozozok by the Wnt pathway. Ryu, S.L., Fujii, R., Yamanaka, Y., Shimizu, T., Yabe, T., Hirata, T., Hibi, M., Hirano, T. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of the homeodomain protein Bozozok in zebrafish axis formation. Solnica-Krezel, L., Driever, W. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Functional interaction of vega2 and goosecoid homeobox genes in zebrafish. Kawahara, A., Wilm, T., Solnica-Krezel, L., Dawid, I.B. Genesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Cooperative roles of Bozozok/Dharma and Nodal-related proteins in the formation of the dorsal organizer in zebrafish. Shimizu, T., Yamanaka, Y., Ryu, S.L., Hashimoto, H., Yabe, T., Hirata, T., Bae, Y.K., Hibi, M., Hirano, T. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional and hierarchical interactions among zebrafish vox/vent homeobox genes. Gilardelli, C.N., Pozzoli, O., Sordino, P., Matassi, G., Cotelli, F. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel repressor-type homeobox gene, ved, is involved in dharma/bozozok-mediated dorsal organizer formation in zebrafish. Shimizu, T., Yamanaka, Y., Nojima, H., Yabe, T., Hibi, M., Hirano, T. Mech. Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
 
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