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Gene Review

HLA-DMA  -  major histocompatibility complex, class II...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: D6S222E, DMA, HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM alpha chain, HLADM, MHC class II antigen DMA, ...
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Disease relevance of HLA-DMA


Psychiatry related information on HLA-DMA

  • The most common findings in subjects with ring 6 include: profound to moderate mental retardation, microcephaly, prenatal growth failure, retarded bone age, epicanthal folds, flat nasal bridge, short neck, ears low-set or malformed, microphthalmia, and micrognathia [5].
  • Fifty-three samples in 26 patients were analyzed for aliphatic amines (DMA and TMA), and the levels correlated with 2 neurophysiological tests, choice reaction time (CRT), and electroencephalogram (EEG) [6].

High impact information on HLA-DMA

  • HLA-DM is encoded by two genes, DMA and DMB, which map to the MHC class II region, and shares some homology with MHC class I and class II proteins [7].
  • We have isolated two new class II-like complementary DNA sequences, RING6 and RING7, which map between the HLA-DNA and -DOB loci [8].
  • The dimerization of some vancomycin group antibiotics is strongly exothermic (-36 to -51 kJ.mol-1) and is promoted by a factor of 50-100 by a disaccharide attached to ring 4 (in vancomycin and eremomycin) and by a factor of ca. 1000 by an amino-sugar attached to the benzylic position of ring 6 in eremomycin [9].
  • Dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid; DMA) is one of the major methylated metabolites of ingested arsenicals in most mammals [10].
  • In the initiated groups (groups 1-5), DMA significantly enhanced the tumor induction in the urinary bladder, kidney, liver, and thyroid gland, with respective incidences in group 5 (400 ppm DMA) being 80, 65, 65, and 45% [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of HLA-DMA

  • Phase II trial of aminocamptothecin (9-AC/DMA) in patients with advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer [11].
  • It was observed that the serum concentrations of MMA, DMA and TML were significantly elevated in sera obtained from patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, hepatitis or hyperthyroidism, particularly the last condition [12].
  • 4. Mescaline, DOM, TMA, DMA and 5 Me-ODMT also elicited myoclonus in a dose-dependent manner and in potency ratios which approximate the human experience for hallucinogenic activity [13].

Biological context of HLA-DMA


Anatomical context of HLA-DMA


Associations of HLA-DMA with chemical compounds

  • These data support a tentative scheme for the acetogenic fermentation of DCM involving interspecies formate transfer from strain DMA to the acetogenic bacterium DMB or to the methanogen M. hungatei [21].
  • The class II region is better characterised, with evidence of one DRA, four DRB (one coding and three non-coding), one DQA1, two DQA2, and one each of the DQB1, DQB2, DNA, DOB, DYA, DYB, DMA, and DMB genes in the region [22].
  • Induction of preneoplastic lesions (glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci in the liver and atypical tubules in the kidney) was also significantly increased in DMA-treated groups [10].
  • All MAs are synthesized from l-Met, sharing the same pathway from l-Met to 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) [23].
  • The iridium complex [Ir(COD)(PPh3)2]+ SbF6- reacts with tert-butyldimethylsilane in DMA to form [IrH2(Sol)2(PPh3)2]+ SbF6-, which is an active catalyst for the regioselective di- and trisilylation of a series of representative methyl hexopyranosides, beta-1,6-anhydrohexopyranosides and 1,3,5-O-methylidene inositol [24].

Other interactions of HLA-DMA

  • This profile was also observed for genes encoding the invariant chain, the transcription factor class II transactivator (CIITA), and the enzymes involved in the peptide loading cathepsin S, HLA-DMA, and -DMB [25].
  • Regarding the temporal relationship, a significant increase of whole-blood HLA-DRA, -DMA, -DMB, invariant chain, and CIITA mRNA level was observed in survivors (p = .001), whereas expressions remained low in nonsurvivors [25].
  • HLA-DMA alleles are possible new markers of rheumatoid arthritis: study of a Corsican group [26].
  • In this study, we report on the effect of polymorphism and matching of HLA-DMA, -DMB, and LMP2 genes on kidney graft outcome [27].
  • Polymorphism of HLA-DMA and DMB alleles in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HLA-DMA


  1. HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB alleles in German patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Siegmund, T., Donner, H., Braun, J., Usadel, K.H., Badenhoop, K. Tissue Antigens (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Idiopathic and secondary membranous nephropathy and polymorphism at TAP1 and HLA-DMA loci. Chevrier, D., Giral, M., Perrichot, R., Latinne, D., Coville, P., Muller, J.Y., Soulillou, J.P., Bignon, J.D. Tissue Antigens (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB genotyping in patients with rheumatic diseases. Yen, J.H., Tsai, W.C., Tsai, J.J., Chen, C.J., Lin, C.H., Ou, T.T., Wu, C.C., Liu, H.W. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of TAP and HLA-DM genes with psoriasis in Koreans. Pyo, C.W., Hur, S.S., Kim, Y.K., Kim, T.Y., Kim, T.G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Ring chromosome 6: case report and review of literature. Kini, K.R., Van Dyke, D.L., Weiss, L., Logan, M.S. Hum. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Toxicity of aliphatic amines in uremia. Simenhoff, M.L., Ginn, H.E., Teschan, P.E. Transactions - American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Mediation by HLA-DM of dissociation of peptides from HLA-DR. Sloan, V.S., Cameron, P., Porter, G., Gammon, M., Amaya, M., Mellins, E., Zaller, D.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. A new human HLA class II-related locus, DM. Kelly, A.P., Monaco, J.J., Cho, S.G., Trowsdale, J. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Toward an estimation of binding constants in aqueous solution: studies of associations of vancomycin group antibiotics. Williams, D.H., Searle, M.S., Mackay, J.P., Gerhard, U., Maplestone, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Cancer induction by an organic arsenic compound, dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid), in F344/DuCrj rats after pretreatment with five carcinogens. Yamamoto, S., Konishi, Y., Matsuda, T., Murai, T., Shibata, M.A., Matsui-Yuasa, I., Otani, S., Kuroda, K., Endo, G., Fukushima, S. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Phase II trial of aminocamptothecin (9-AC/DMA) in patients with advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer. Lad, T., Rosen, F., Sciortino, D., Brockstein, B., Keubler, J.P., Arietta, R., Vokes, E. Investigational new drugs. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Determination of methylated amino acids in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. Park, K.S., Lee, H.W., Hong, S.Y., Shin, S., Kim, S., Paik, W.K. J. Chromatogr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. LSD and other related hallucinogens elicit myoclonic jumping behavior in the guinea pig. Carvey, P., Nausieda, P., Weertz, R., Klawans, H. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. HLA-DMA and -DMB genes are both required for MHC class II/peptide complex formation in antigen-presenting cells. Fling, S.P., Arp, B., Pious, D. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Genomic organization of HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB. Comparison of the gene organization of all six class II families in the human major histocompatibility complex. Radley, E., Alderton, R.P., Kelly, A., Trowsdale, J., Beck, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. HLA DRB1, DMA, and DMB gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis. Reviron, D., Tezenas du Montcel, S., Foutrier, C., Guis, S., Benazet, J.F., Auquier, P., Busson, M., Roux, H., Mercier, P., Roudier, J. Hum. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB gene expression functions through the conserved S-X-Y region. Westerheide, S.D., Louis-Plence, P., Ping, D., He, X.F., Boss, J.M. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential MHC class II component expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells: implication for immune surveillance. Zehbe, I., Höhn, H., Pilch, H., Neukirch, C., Freitag, K., Maeurer, M.J. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. The RAG cell line defines a new complementation group of MHC class II deficiency. Lennon, A., Ottone, C., Peijnenburg, A., Hamon-Benais, C., Colland, F., Gobin, S., van den Elsen, P., Fellous, M., Bono, R., Alcaïde-Loridan, C. Immunogenetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Novel genes in the human major histocompatibility complex class-II region. Kelly, A., Trowsdale, J. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Dichloromethane as the sole carbon source for an acetogenic mixed culture and isolation of a fermentative, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium. Braus-Stromeyer, S.A., Hermann, R., Cook, A.M., Leisinger, T. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. 'Ovar-Mhc' - ovine major histocompatibility complex: structure and gene polymorphisms. Dukkipati, V.S., Blair, H.T., Garrick, D.J., Murray, A. Genet. Mol. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and characterization of deoxymugineic Acid synthase genes from graminaceous plants. Bashir, K., Inoue, H., Nagasaka, S., Takahashi, M., Nakanishi, H., Mori, S., Nishizawa, N.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Regioselectively trisilylated hexopyranosides through homogeneously catalyzed silane alcoholysis. Chung, M.K., Schlaf, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Messenger RNA expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in whole blood from septic shock patients. Pachot, A., Monneret, G., Brion, A., Venet, F., Bohé, J., Bienvenu, J., Mougin, B., Lepape, A. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. HLA-DMA alleles are possible new markers of rheumatoid arthritis: study of a Corsican group. Cucchi-Mouillot, P., Lai, S., Carcassi, C., Silicani-Amoros, P., Floris, L., Amoros, J.P., Genetet, B., Haras, D., Contu, L. Exp. Clin. Immunogenet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Impact of the MHC-encoded HLA-DMA, DMB, and LMP2 gene polymorphisms on kidney graft outcome. Chevrier, D., Giral, M., Muller, J.Y., Bignon, J.D., Soulillou, J.P. Hum. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Polymorphism of HLA-DMA and DMB alleles in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Morel, J., Simoes, C.d.a. .S., Avinens, O., Sany, J., Combe, B., Eliaou, J.F. J. Rheumatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. HLA DMA and DMB show no association with rheumatoid arthritis in US Caucasians. Moxley, G., Han, J. Eur. J. Immunogenet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Sequence analysis of two novel HLA-DMA alleles. Carrington, M., Harding, A. Immunogenetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. HLA-DMA allele polymorphism: no impact on kidney allograft outcome. Saadeh, E., Szatkowski, M., Vary, C.P., Smith, J.D., Himmelfarb, J., Mahoney, R.J. Hum. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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