The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

ARF4  -  ADP-ribosylation factor 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARF2
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of ARF4


High impact information on ARF4

  • The effects of blocking ARF4 action were functionally equivalent to the effects of blocking the rhodopsin C-terminal sorting signal [3].
  • Here, we report that this sorting motif binds specifically to the small GTPase ARF4, a member of the ARF family of membrane budding and protein sorting regulators [3].
  • ARF4 was essential for the generation of post-Golgi carriers targeted to the rod outer segments of retinal photoreceptors [3].
  • It appears that psi ARF 4 arose during human evolution by integration of processed ARF 4 mRNA into the genome [1].
  • The GTP-bound form of ARF5 with amino acid residues in the N terminus mutated to those in ARF4 (another class II ARF) also bound to arfophilin, suggesting it is a target protein for GTP-bound forms of class II ARFs [5].

Biological context of ARF4

  • They have recently been shown to play a role in vesicular trafficking and as activators of phospholipase D. The organization of the human ARF4 gene was determined from a genomic clone isolated from an arrayed PAC genomic library [6].
  • The proximal 5'-flanking region of the human ARF4 gene lacks a TATA box, is highly GC rich, and contains multiple potential Spl-binding sites [6].
  • Deduced amino acid sequences for rat ARFs 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 were identical to those of the known cognate human and bovine ARFs; rat ARF4 was 96% identical to human ARF4 [7].
  • Sequences of 3'-untranslated regions of rat and human ARF 4 mRNA were very similar with identical polyadenylation signals at similar positions [8].
  • On Northern analysis of the developmental expression of rat ARF 4 mRNA, appearance of the shorter species was consistent with its involvement in a late stage of spermatogenesis [8].

Anatomical context of ARF4

  • Two peptides corresponding to the NH2-terminal 16 amino acids of human ARF1 and ARF4 blocked GTP gamma S stimulation of fusion in dilute cytosol and reversed GTP gamma S inhibition of fusion in concentrated cytosol [9].
  • A proposed cascade of molecular interactions, initiated by the rhodopsin C-terminal sequence VXPX-COOH during trafficking from the Golgi/TGN in retinal photoreceptors, is relayed by the small GTPase ARF4 to the downstream effectors [10].
  • Of the ARF 4 mRNAs identified by RACE-PCR, with sizes of 1.1, 1.3, and 1.8 kb, the 1.1-kb mRNA was predominant in adult testis [8].

Associations of ARF4 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of ARF4

  • Both hARF1 and hARF4 encode GTP-binding proteins with predicted molecular masses of 20,000-21,000 Da [11].
  • We observe that the NH2 termini of Group II ARFs (ARF4 and ARF5) are efficiently processed by removal of the initiating methionine [12].


  1. Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin. Monaco, L., Murtagh, J.J., Newman, K.B., Tsai, S.C., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. ADP-ribosylation factor is required for vesicular trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cis-Golgi compartment. Balch, W.E., Kahn, R.A., Schwaninger, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Rhodopsin C terminus, the site of mutations causing retinal disease, regulates trafficking by binding to ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4). Deretic, D., Williams, A.H., Ransom, N., Morel, V., Hargrave, P.A., Arendt, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Recognition of ADP-ribosylation factor 4-like by HLA-A2-restricted and tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients with brain tumors. Nonaka, Y., Tsuda, N., Shichijo, S., Ito, M., Maeda, Y., Harada, M., Kamura, T., Shigemori, M., Itoh, K. Tissue Antigens (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of arfophilin, a target protein for GTP-bound class II ADP-ribosylation factors. Shin, O.H., Ross, A.H., Mihai, I., Exton, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning and characterization of the human ADP-ribosylation factor 4 gene. Lebeda, R.A., Haun, R.S. Gene (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Interspecies relationships among ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs): evidence of evolutionary pressure to maintain individual identities. Price, S.R., Nightingale, M.S., Tsuchiya, M., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) expression. Cross-species conservation of the developmental and tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation of ARF 4 mRNA. Mishima, K., Price, S.R., Nightingale, M.S., Kousvelari, E., Moss, J., Vaughan, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) as a regulator of in vitro endosome-endosome fusion. Lenhard, J.M., Kahn, R.A., Stahl, P.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for rhodopsin in a signal transduction cascade that regulates membrane trafficking and photoreceptor polarity. Deretic, D. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Human ADP-ribosylation factors. A functionally conserved family of GTP-binding proteins. Kahn, R.A., Kern, F.G., Clark, J., Gelmann, E.P., Rulka, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of recombinant human ADP-ribosylation factors by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray mass spectrometry. Berger, S.J., Claude, A.C., Melançon, P. Anal. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities