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PLG  -  plasminogen

Homo sapiens

 
 
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Disease relevance of PLG

  • The incidence of these hereditary disorders in our 204 patients (106 males and 98 females) with venous thromboembolism were 4% (three cases deficient in PC, three in PS, two in PLG, and one patient in AT III) [1].
  • The early activation of plasmin by endotoxin may prevent thrombosis, and the increase in fibrinolysis is then offset by the release of plasminogen activator inhibitor [2].
  • Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator for treatment of acute stroke: the Standard Treatment with Alteplase to Reverse Stroke (STARS) study [3].
  • Thus, it appears that there is an imbalance between plasminogen activators and their inhibitors in colonic neoplasia in favor of u-PA, which may contribute to plasmin-mediated growth, invasiveness, and metastasis [4].
  • Purkinje neuron degeneration in nervous (nr) mutant mice is mediated by a metabolic pathway involving excess tissue plasminogen activator [5].
 

Psychiatry related information on PLG

 

High impact information on PLG

 

Chemical compound and disease context of PLG

 

Biological context of PLG

 

Anatomical context of PLG

 

Associations of PLG with chemical compounds

  • Binding of PLG was 70-80% inhibited by 10 mM epsilon-aminocaproic acid, suggesting that it is largely mediated by the lysine-binding sites of PLG [19].
  • Of the ligands of HPRG tested, mesoheme (20 microM) but not heparin (M(r) 10,000, 10 microM) inhibits the formation of the HPRG-PLG complex [26].
  • Urokinase didn't bind to Ann-II, demonstrating the role of receptor-related lysine residues on activation of PLG, showing that the Ann-II-PLG interaction was dependent upon carboxyl-terminal lysine residues [20].
  • This was followed by a marked increase in clot-bound plasminogen having glutamic acid as NH2-terminal (glu-plasminogen) and gluplasmin. t-PA-induced enhancement of glu-plasminogen uptake appears to be mediated by plasmin but does not require the conversion of glu-plasminogen to plasminogen having lysine or methionine as NH2-terminal [27].
  • The accumulation of plasminogen was faster and greater on noncrosslinked plasma clots than on clots which had been crosslinked by Factor XIIIa [27].
 

Physical interactions of PLG

 

Enzymatic interactions of PLG

  • Interactions of plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with amphoterin. Enhancement of t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation by amphoterin [33].
  • Because uPA cleaves Plg into plasmin, which activates matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), the end result was an increase in MMP activity [34].
  • We have previously demonstrated that a synthetic peptide derived from amino acids 2091-2108 of the laminin A chain (designated LamA2091-2108) can significantly enhance t-PA-catalyzed Pg activation [35].
  • Furthermore, human casein enhanced t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation, comparable to the enhancing effect obtained with fibrinogen fragments [36].
  • MMP-9 cleaves plasminogen to generate a 42-kDa fragment with the N-terminal sequence PVVLLPNVE, 1 residue upstream of the MMP-7 cleavage site [37].
 

Co-localisations of PLG

  • S100A10 also colocalizes plasminogen with the uPA-uPAR complex thereby localizing and stimulating uPA-dependent plasmin formation to the surface of cancer cells [38].
 

Regulatory relationships of PLG

  • Plasminogen bound to the latter site on fibrin was activated by t-PA and therefore is involved in the ternary complex [39].
  • Evidence is provided that in ECM, procoagulant thrombin may promote plasminogen activator activity by inactivating PAI-1 [40].
  • TF enhanced two-chain urokinase (tcuPA) activation of Glu-plasminogen, but not of miniplasminogen, in a dose-dependent, saturable manner (half maximal stimulation at 59 pmol/L) [29].
  • Platelet-derived growth factor D is activated by urokinase plasminogen activator in prostate carcinoma cells [41].
  • Our results suggest that plasminogen is frequently activated in the joints of patients with inflammatory or noninflammatory arthropathy and that this activation mainly occurs via a u-PA-, and in some cases also via a factor XII-, dependent pathway [42].
 

Other interactions of PLG

  • HRGP covalently cross-linked to Sepharose 4B simultaneously bound both 125I-TSP and 131I-Plg, confirming trimolecular complex formation [28].
  • Complex formation of platelet thrombospondin with plasminogen. Modulation of activation by tissue activator [43].
  • We have studied the distribution of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in cultures of confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells [44].
  • Protein S is a cofactor for activated protein C neutralization of an inhibitor of plasminogen activation released from platelets [45].
  • The stimulatory effect of TF on plasminogen activation was confirmed when plasmin formation was examined directly on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [29].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PLG

References

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  2. Promotion and subsequent inhibition of plasminogen activation after administration of intravenous endotoxin to normal subjects. Suffredini, A.F., Harpel, P.C., Parrillo, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator for treatment of acute stroke: the Standard Treatment with Alteplase to Reverse Stroke (STARS) study. Albers, G.W., Bates, V.E., Clark, W.M., Bell, R., Verro, P., Hamilton, S.A. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Imbalance of plasminogen activators and their inhibitors in human colorectal neoplasia. Implications of urokinase in colorectal carcinogenesis. Sier, C.F., Verspaget, H.W., Griffioen, G., Verheijen, J.H., Quax, P.H., Dooijewaard, G., De Bruin, P.A., Lamers, C.B. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Purkinje neuron degeneration in nervous (nr) mutant mice is mediated by a metabolic pathway involving excess tissue plasminogen activator. Li, J., Ma, Y., Teng, Y.D., Zheng, K., Vartanian, T.K., Snyder, E.Y., Sidman, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  12. Coronary stenting plus platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade compared with tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction. Stent versus Thrombolysis for Occluded Coronary Arteries in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Study Investigators. Schömig, A., Kastrati, A., Dirschinger, J., Mehilli, J., Schricke, U., Pache, J., Martinoff, S., Neumann, F.J., Schwaiger, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Cost effectiveness of early discharge after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Newby, L.K., Eisenstein, E.L., Califf, R.M., Thompson, T.D., Nelson, C.L., Peterson, E.D., Armstrong, P.W., Van de Werf, F., White, H.D., Topol, E.J., Mark, D.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Domain 1 of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor is required for its morphologic and functional, beta2 integrin-mediated connection with actin cytoskeleton in human microvascular endothelial cells: Failure of association in systemic sclerosis endothelial cells. Margheri, F., Manetti, M., Serrat??, S., Nosi, D., Pucci, M., Matucci-Cerinic, M., Kahaleh, B., Bazzichi, L., Fibbi, G., Ibba-Manneschi, L., Rosso, M.D. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Bacillolysin MA, a novel bacterial metalloproteinase that produces angiostatin-like fragments from plasminogen and activates protease zymogens in the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. Narasaki, R., Kuribayashi, H., Shimizu, K., Imamura, D., Sato, T., Hasumi, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Retinoic acid-enhanced invasion through reconstituted basement membrane by human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells involves membrane-associated tissue-type plasminogen activator. Tiberio, A., Farina, A.R., Tacconelli, A., Cappabianca, L., Gulino, A., Mackay, A.R. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and characterization of novel tPA- and plasminogen-binding sites within fibrin(ogen) alpha C-domains. Tsurupa, G., Medved, L. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator in plasma and leucocytes in patients with severe sepsis. Robbie, L.A., Dummer, S., Booth, N.A., Adey, G.D., Bennett, B. Br. J. Haematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Binding of plasminogen to cultured human endothelial cells. Hajjar, K.A., Harpel, P.C., Jaffe, E.A., Nachman, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Study on the mechanism of the annexin II-mediated co-assembly of t-PA and plasminogen. Zhang, X., Zhou, H., Shen, G., Liu, Z., Hu, Y., Wei, W., Song, S. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Bolus fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Llevadot, J., Giugliano, R.P., Antman, E.M. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Glucocorticoid-modulated gene expression of tissue- and urinary-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and 2. Medcalf, R.L., Van den Berg, E., Schleuning, W.D. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of antisense oligonucleotide to annexin II on the t-PA-mediated plasminogen activation in vitro. Zhang, X., Zhou, H., Xia, L., Shen, G., Hu, Y., Wei, W., Song, S. Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Metastatic behavior of human melanoma cell lines in nude mice correlates with urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its type-1 inhibitor, and urokinase-mediated matrix degradation. Quax, P.H., van Muijen, G.N., Weening-Verhoeff, E.J., Lund, L.R., Danø, K., Ruiter, D.J., Verheijen, J.H. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Transforming growth factor-beta is a strong and fast acting positive regulator of the level of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor mRNA in WI-38 human lung fibroblasts. Lund, L.R., Riccio, A., Andreasen, P.A., Nielsen, L.S., Kristensen, P., Laiho, M., Saksela, O., Blasi, F., Danø, K. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Interaction of histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein with plasminogen: effect of ligands, pH, ionic strength, and chemical modification. Saez, C.T., Jansen, G.J., Smith, A., Morgan, W.T. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Tissue-type plasminogen activator increases the binding of glu-plasminogen to clots. Tran-Thang, C., Kruithof, E.K., Bachmann, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Platelet thrombospondin forms a trimolecular complex with plasminogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Silverstein, R.L., Leung, L.L., Harpel, P.C., Nachman, R.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Tissue factor regulates plasminogen binding and activation. Fan, Z., Larson, P.J., Bognacki, J., Raghunath, P.N., Tomaszewski, J.E., Kuo, A., Canziani, G., Chaiken, I., Cines, D.B., Higazi, A.A. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase enhance the binding of plasminogen to thrombospondin. Silverstein, R.L., Harpel, P.C., Nachman, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and characterization of a plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 binding protein from human plasma. Identification as a multimeric form of S protein (vitronectin). Declerck, P.J., De Mol, M., Alessi, M.C., Baudner, S., Pâques, E.P., Preissner, K.T., Müller-Berghaus, G., Collen, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Acceleration of plasminogen activation by tissue plasminogen activator on surface-bound histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein. Borza, D.B., Morgan, W.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Interactions of plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with amphoterin. Enhancement of t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation by amphoterin. Parkkinen, J., Rauvala, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Imbalanced plasminogen system in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: potential role of serum response factor. Zhe, X., Yang, Y., Schuger, L. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. The effect of substituted laminin A chain-derived peptides on the conformation and activation kinetics of plasminogen. Stack, M.S., Pizzo, S.V. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Plasminogen activation system in human milk. Heegaard, C.W., Larsen, L.B., Rasmussen, L.K., Højberg, K.E., Petersen, T.E., Andreasen, P.A. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Angiostatin-converting enzyme activities of human matrilysin (MMP-7) and gelatinase B/type IV collagenase (MMP-9). Patterson, B.C., Sang, Q.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. S100A10, annexin A2, and annexin a2 heterotetramer as candidate plasminogen receptors. Kwon, M., MacLeod, T.J., Zhang, Y., Waisman, D.M. Front. Biosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Complementary modes of action of tissue-type plasminogen activator and pro-urokinase by which their synergistic effect on clot lysis may be explained. Pannell, R., Black, J., Gurewich, V. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  40. Thrombin neutralizes plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) that is complexed with vitronectin in the endothelial cell matrix. Ehrlich, H.J., Gebbink, R.K., Preissner, K.T., Keijer, J., Esmon, N.L., Mertens, K., Pannekoek, H. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  41. Platelet-derived growth factor D is activated by urokinase plasminogen activator in prostate carcinoma cells. Ustach, C.V., Kim, H.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  42. Analysis of intraarticular fibrinolytic pathways in patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory joint diseases. Kummer, J.A., Abbink, J.J., de Boer, J.P., Roem, D., Nieuwenhuys, E.J., Kamp, A.M., Swaak, T.J., Hack, C.E. Arthritis Rheum. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Complex formation of platelet thrombospondin with plasminogen. Modulation of activation by tissue activator. Silverstein, R.L., Leung, L.L., Harpel, P.C., Nachman, R.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  44. Association of a plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) with the growth substratum and membrane of human endothelial cells. Levin, E.G., Santell, L. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  45. Protein S is a cofactor for activated protein C neutralization of an inhibitor of plasminogen activation released from platelets. D'Angelo, A., Lockhart, M.S., D'Angelo, S.V., Taylor, F.B. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  46. Cost effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator as compared with streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. Mark, D.B., Hlatky, M.A., Califf, R.M., Naylor, C.D., Lee, K.L., Armstrong, P.W., Barbash, G., White, H., Simoons, M.L., Nelson, C.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  47. More rapid, complete, and stable coronary thrombolysis with bolus administration of reteplase compared with alteplase infusion in acute myocardial infarction. RAPID Investigators. Smalling, R.W., Bode, C., Kalbfleisch, J., Sen, S., Limbourg, P., Forycki, F., Habib, G., Feldman, R., Hohnloser, S., Seals, A. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
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