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Gene Review

AZU1  -  azurocidin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AZAMP, AZU, Azurocidin, CAP37, Cationic antimicrobial protein CAP37, ...
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Disease relevance of AZU1


Psychiatry related information on AZU1

  • We have identified a novel inflammatory molecule, cationic antimicrobial protein of molecular weight 37 kDa (CAP37), to the brains of patients dying from Alzheimer's disease [6].
  • In particular, CNT decreased the overpotential for the mediated process by an extra 0.30 V and amplified the NADH current by approximately 35 times (at -0.10 V) while reducing the response time from approximately 70 s for CHIT-AZU to approximately 5 s for CHIT-AZU/CNT films [7].

High impact information on AZU1


Chemical compound and disease context of AZU1


Biological context of AZU1


Anatomical context of AZU1


Associations of AZU1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of AZU1


Enzymatic interactions of AZU1

  • Treatment of MM6 cells with recombinant HBP evoked a rapid and clear-cut increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) that was found to be critical for the HBP-induced monocyte arrest inasmuch as pretreatment with the intracellular calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM abolished the evoked increase in adhesion [23].

Regulatory relationships of AZU1


Other interactions of AZU1

  • We report a physical map of the gene cluster, its location on chromosome 19pter, and the exon-intron organization of the AZU and PR3 genes [16].
  • When monocytes in parallel experiments were labelled with [35S]methionine de novo synthesis and secretion of thrombospondin in a dose-dependent manner was observed after 16 h, with half-maximal secretion at 2 micrograms hHBP/ml and a maximal 12-fold increase in secretion with respect to controls at 16 micrograms/ml [19].
  • The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CAP37 shares significant homology with a number of inflammatory molecules with protease activity including elastase and cathepsin G [18].
  • Human cationic antimicrobial protein (CAP37) is a neutrophil granule protein with monocyte chemotactic and antibacterial activity [20].
  • CAP37 does not possess serine protease activity probably due to mutations in two of three residues in the catalytic triad of the "charge relay system." Whereas CAP37 is expressed in undifferentiated HL-60 cells no message is detected in mature neutrophils [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AZU1


  1. CAP37, a human neutrophil-derived chemotactic factor with monocyte specific activity. Pereira, H.A., Shafer, W.M., Pohl, J., Martin, L.E., Spitznagel, J.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Corneal expression of the inflammatory mediator CAP37. Ruan, X., Chodosh, J., Callegan, M.C., Booth, M.C., Lee, T.D., Kumar, P., Gilmore, M.S., Pereira, H.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Two mutants of human heparin binding protein (CAP37): toward the understanding of the nature of lipid A/LPS and BPTI binding. Kastrup, J.S., Linde, V., Pedersen, A.K., Stoffer, B., Iversen, L.F., Larsen, I.K., Rasmussen, P.B., Flodgaard, H.J., Bjørn, S.E. Proteins (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The repressive effect of green tea ingredients on amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression in oral carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Ko, S.Y., Chang, K.W., Lin, S.C., Hsu, H.C., Liu, T.Y. Cancer Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a heparin-binding hemagglutinin present in mycobacteria. Menozzi, F.D., Rouse, J.H., Alavi, M., Laude-Sharp, M., Muller, J., Bischoff, R., Brennan, M.J., Locht, C. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of microglia: a neuroinflammatory role for CAP37. Pereira, H.A., Ruan, X., Kumar, P. Glia (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Electrochemical sensing based on redox mediation at carbon nanotubes. Zhang, M., Gorski, W. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. M protein, a classical bacterial virulence determinant, forms complexes with fibrinogen that induce vascular leakage. Herwald, H., Cramer, H., Mörgelin, M., Russell, W., Sollenberg, U., Norrby-Teglund, A., Flodgaard, H., Lindbom, L., Björck, L. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Heparin-binding protein (HBP/CAP37): a missing link in neutrophil-evoked alteration of vascular permeability. Gautam, N., Olofsson, A.M., Herwald, H., Iversen, L.F., Lundgren-Akerlund, E., Hedqvist, P., Arfors, K.E., Flodgaard, H., Lindbom, L. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of human neutrophil-derived cathepsin G and azurocidin/CAP37 as chemoattractants for mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Chertov, O., Ueda, H., Xu, L.L., Tani, K., Murphy, W.J., Wang, J.M., Howard, O.M., Sayers, T.J., Oppenheim, J.J. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Heparin-binding protein targeted to mitochondrial compartments protects endothelial cells from apoptosis. Olofsson, A.M., Vestberg, M., Herwald, H., Rygaard, J., David, G., Arfors, K.E., Linde, V., Flodgaard, H., Dedio, J., Müller-Esterl, W., Lundgren-Akerlund, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional domains of the receptor-associated protein (RAP). Orlando, R.A., Farquhar, M.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. An analysis of the inhibition of replication of HIV and MuLV by some 3'-blocked pyrimidine analogs. Bazin, H., Chattopadhyaya, J., Datema, R., Ericson, A.C., Gilljam, G., Johansson, N.G., Hansen, J., Koshida, R., Moelling, K., Oberg, B. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Human neutrophil-derived CAP37 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced activation in murine peritoneal macrophages. Bosshart, H., Heinzelmann, M. Immunol. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in chromatin organization at the neutrophil elastase locus associated with myeloid cell differentiation. Wong, E.T., Jenne, D.E., Zimmer, M., Porter, S.D., Gilks, C.B. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Three human elastase-like genes coordinately expressed in the myelomonocyte lineage are organized as a single genetic locus on 19pter. Zimmer, M., Medcalf, R.L., Fink, T.M., Mattmann, C., Lichter, P., Jenne, D.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Amino acid sequence of CAP37, a human neutrophil granule-derived antibacterial and monocyte-specific chemotactic glycoprotein structurally similar to neutrophil elastase. Pohl, J., Pereira, H.A., Martin, N.M., Spitznagel, J.K. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Human neutrophil granule cationic protein CAP37 is a specific macrophage chemotaxin that shares homology with inflammatory proteinases. Morgan, J.G., Pereira, H.A., Sukiennicki, T., Spitznagel, J.K., Larrick, J.W. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. A neutrophil-derived proteolytic inactive elastase homologue (hHBP) mediates reversible contraction of fibroblasts and endothelial cell monolayers and stimulates monocyte survival and thrombospondin secretion. Ostergaard, E., Flodgaard, H. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning of the cDNA for the serine protease homolog CAP37/azurocidin, a microbicidal and chemotactic protein from human granulocytes. Morgan, J.G., Sukiennicki, T., Pereira, H.A., Spitznagel, J.K., Guerra, M.E., Larrick, J.W. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of the effects of methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethyl ketone-inhibited neutrophil elastase with the effects of its naturally occurring mutationally inactivated homologue (HBP) on fibroblasts and monocytes in vitro. Ostergaard, E., Nielsen, O.F., Flodgaard, H. APMIS (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification and characterization of fertility-associated antigen (FAA) in bovine seminal fluid. McCauley, T.C., Zhang, H., Bellin, M.E., Ax, R.L. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP/CAP37) deposited on endothelium enhances monocyte arrest under flow conditions. Soehnlein, O., Xie, X., Ulbrich, H., Kenne, E., Rotzius, P., Flodgaard, H., Eriksson, E.E., Lindbom, L. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Functional modulation of smooth muscle cells by the inflammatory mediator CAP37. Gonzalez, M.L., Ruan, X., Kumar, P., Grammas, P., Pereira, H.A. Microvasc. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. HBNF and MK, members of a novel gene family of heparin-binding proteins with potential roles in embryogenesis and brain function. Böhlen, P., Kovesdi, I. Prog. Growth Factor Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Secretion of heparin-binding protein from human neutrophils is determined by its localization in azurophilic granules and secretory vesicles. Tapper, H., Karlsson, A., Mörgelin, M., Flodgaard, H., Herwald, H. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
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