The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

ACTB  -  actin, beta

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Actin, cytoplasmic 1, BRWS1, Beta-actin, PS1TP5BP1
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of ACTB


Psychiatry related information on ACTB

  • METHODS: We employed SDS-PAGE and Western blotting to measure levels of GAD isomers 65 and 67 kDa and Reelin isoforms 410-, 330- and 180-kDa proteins as well as beta-actin in cerebellum of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression vs. controls (N = 15 per group) [6].
  • A probe specific for the INT-2 gene was labelled with [alpha-32P]dCTP and a probe to beta-actin, the control locus, was labelled with [alpha-35S]dATP [7].
  • These studies demonstrated the presence of protein carbonyl immunoreactivity in beta-tubulin, beta-actin and creatine kinase BB in Alzheimer's disease and control brain extracts [8].

High impact information on ACTB

  • Recently, beta-actin was found to be a component of mammalian SWI/SNF-like BAF chromatin remodeling complexes and still more recently other SWI/SNF-related chromatin remodeling complexes in yeast, flies, and man [9].
  • Expression of this factor in CV1 cells shows that it represses expression originating from both the EGFR and beta-actin promoters as well as chimeric promoters containing the CANP gene [10].
  • A variant form of beta-actin in a mutant of KB cells resistant to cytochalasin B [11].
  • Furthermore, this sarcomeric protein partitions between the Triton X-100 insoluble and soluble phases to the same extent as the endogenous beta-actin [12].
  • Variations in expression of mutant beta actin accompanying incremental increases in human fibroblast tumorigenicity [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of ACTB

  • In an attempt to identify the changes induced in the synthesis of cytoskeletal protein by ischemia, we also evaluated the effects of post-ischemia administration of bifemelane on these cytoskeletal proteins. alpha-Tubulin and beta-actin mRNAs were decreased in the CA1 region 14 days after transient ischemia [14].
  • These findings in the baboon model of alcoholic fibrosis show that ethanol consumption increases type I procollagen mRNA, which may foster fibrogenesis; increases albumin mRNA content without causing an increase in serum albumin; and induces no change in levels of beta-actin mRNA [15].
  • We conclude the NAC blocks dense cell formation and ISC formation by targeting channels involved in cellular dehydration and beta-actin, respectively [16].
  • Accordingly, we analyzed 108 colorectal adenomas for COX-1 and COX-2 transcription in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using by real-time PCR and normalized to beta-actin [17].
  • Primary Schwann cells were infected in vitro with a recombinant retrovirus expressing a dominant selectable marker, neomycin phosphotransferase (conferring resistance to the drug G418), and antisense P0 RNA under the control of the human beta-actin promoter [18].

Biological context of ACTB

  • Herein, we present a new mechanism of GLI activation through fusion with the beta-actin gene (ACTB) in five histologically distinctive soft tissue tumors showing a t(7;12)(p21-22;q13-15) and a pericytic phenotype [19].
  • Molecular genetic analysis showed that the translocation in all cases resulted in a fusion transcript including the 5'-part of ACTB and the 3'-part of GLI [19].
  • The significant differences between B2M, ACTB and GAPD transcript levels brings into question the common practice of defining gene expression as a ratio between the transcripts of interest and those of these reference genes [1].
  • FISH localization of human cytoplasmic actin genes ACTB to 7p22 and ACTG1 to 17q25 and characterization of related pseudogenes [20].
  • Human beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic actin genes (ACTB and ACTG1) were mapped to chromosomes 7p22 and 17q25, respectively, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) [20].

Anatomical context of ACTB

  • 18S rRNA varies less among the cell lines but has a higher degree of random variability, while ACTB mRNA varies more among cell lines but has a lower degree of random variation [21].
  • ACTB and HPRT1 are suitable internal controls for evaluating mRNA expression levels in primary cultures of human and rat hepatocytes after Rif, Dex, or Ome exposure [22].
  • No differences were detected in the apparent amounts of RT-PCR products when comparing GC with CC, suggesting a similar pattern of expression of these RNAs. beta-actin mRNA was detected in spermatozoa, but TRalpha-1 expression was not detectable [23].
  • An important increase in the variation of beta-actin expression was observed in cultured cells as compared to fresh cells [24].
  • In the present study, a frequently used control gene, beta-actin, was examined in ovine heart valves to evaluate its applicability as a housekeeping gene for this tissue [24].

Associations of ACTB with chemical compounds

  • The second class encodes beta actin, and the longest such clone contains 45 base pairs of 5' untranslated region plus the remainder of the mRNA extending to the polyadenylic acid tail [25].
  • LPS treatment resulted in the rapid elevation of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA levels relative to beta-actin mRNA at 1 h, with a subsequent slight decrease at 3 h after the treatment, while the down-regulation of the relative concentration of MDR1 mRNA was found at 3 h, not at 1 h, after LPS treatment [26].
  • Three polymorphisms in intron 3 (T>C) and one polymorphism in exon 4 (T>C) of porcine ACTB gene were identified by comparative sequencing of animals of the breeds Pietrain and Hampshire. Association analysis revealed that haplotypes affected the variation of the traits MOT, ASR and NBA [27].
  • In contrast to the human cardiac muscle actin gene, the aorta-type smooth muscle actin gene, and the stomach-type smooth muscle actin gene, the beta-actin gene lacks the codon for cysteine between the ATG initiation codon and the codon for the NH2-terminal amino acid of the mature protein [3].
  • Sequencing of the clones demonstrated a G-1174 to A substitution, predicting a glutamic acid-364 to lysine substitution in beta-actin and eliminating a HinfI DNase restriction site found in normal beta-actin sequence [28].

Physical interactions of ACTB

  • We also determined that the region between amino acids 613 and 723 of PLD2 is required for the direct binding of beta-actin, using bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins of PLD2 fragments [29].
  • N-acetyl-(leucyl)2-norleucinal and E64, two specific inhibitors of the calcium-activated protease, calpain I, protect ezrin binding to beta actin in the presence of calcium [30].
  • EGF also stabilizes beta-tubulin and beta-actin mRNAs but has very little effect on the degradation of total mRNA [31].
  • Second, by the use of denatured labeled beta-actin and beta-tubulin as model substrates for binding to CCT, we demonstrate that the CCT particle can contain two substrate protein chains simultaneously [32].
  • There was more beta-actin coimmunoprecipitated with eNOS in Triton X-100-soluble fraction in confluent cells in later growth phase and in high density [33].

Regulatory relationships of ACTB


Other interactions of ACTB

  • Comparison of the expression of MAGE mRNA with that of beta-actin mRNA showed that it is expressed in amounts equal to about and at least one-fifth that of beta-actin [38].
  • Hybridization was carried out between plerocercoid DNA and cDNAs for human beta-actin, alpha-tubulin and growth hormone (hGH) [39].
  • Widely used normalizing genes include beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [40].
  • The ratio of ER beta mRNA to beta-actin mRNA expression was significantly reduced in non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFTs; 0.92 +/- 0.09; mean +/- SE; n = 23) compared with findings in normal pituitaries (1.56 +/- 0.21; mean +/- SE; n = 5; p < 0.05 Student's t-test) [41].
  • Furthermore, the eNOS expression was reduced when beta-actin gene was silenced by specific siRNA, and actin overexpression upregulated eNOS expression >3-fold [35].
  • Together our data establish that the posttranscriptional event involving HuR-mediated beta-actin mRNA stabilization could be a part of the regulatory mechanisms responsible for maintaining cell integrity, which is a prerequisite for avoiding transformation and tumor formation [42].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACTB


  1. Quantitative analysis of NF1 and OMGP gene transcripts in sporadic gliomas, sporadic meningiomas and neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas. Peters, N., Waha, A., Wellenreuther, R., Friedrich, R.E., Mautner, V.F., Hoffmeyer, S., Lenartz, D., Schramm, J., Wiestler, O.D., von Deimling, A. Acta Neuropathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Beta-actin in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines with different metastatic potential. Nowak, D., Skwarek-Maruszewska, A., Zemanek-Zboch, M., Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, M. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular structure of the human cytoplasmic beta-actin gene: interspecies homology of sequences in the introns. Nakajima-Iijima, S., Hamada, H., Reddy, P., Kakunaga, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Estrogen receptor gene expression in human uterine leiomyomata. Brandon, D.D., Erickson, T.E., Keenan, E.J., Strawn, E.Y., Novy, M.J., Burry, K.A., Warner, C., Clinton, G.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A role for Rev in the association of HIV-1 gag mRNA with cytoskeletal beta-actin and viral protein expression. Kimura, T., Hashimoto, I., Nishikawa, M., Fujisawa, J.I. Biochimie (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. GABAergic dysfunction in schizophrenia and mood disorders as reflected by decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 kDa and Reelin proteins in cerebellum. Fatemi, S.H., Hossein Fatemi, S., Stary, J.M., Earle, J.A., Araghi-Niknam, M., Eagan, E. Schizophr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Quantification of oncogene dosage in tumours by simultaneous dual-label hybridization. Stickland, J.E., Tomlinson, I.P., Ramshaw, A.L., Bromley, L., Potter, C.G., McGee, J.O. Oncogene (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Protein oxidation in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. Aksenov, M.Y., Aksenova, M.V., Butterfield, D.A., Geddes, J.W., Markesbery, W.R. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Nuclear actin and actin-related proteins in chromatin remodeling. Olave, I.A., Reck-Peterson, S.L., Crabtree, G.R. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human DNA binding factor that represses transcription. Kageyama, R., Pastan, I. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. A variant form of beta-actin in a mutant of KB cells resistant to cytochalasin B. Toyama, S., Toyama, S. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of human cardiac actin in mouse L cells: a sarcomeric actin associates with a nonmuscle cytoskeleton. Gunning, P., Ponte, P., Kedes, L., Hickey, R.J., Skoultchi, A.I. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Variations in expression of mutant beta actin accompanying incremental increases in human fibroblast tumorigenicity. Leavitt, J., Bushar, G., Kakunaga, T., Hamada, H., Hirakawa, T., Goldman, D., Merril, C. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Ischemia-induced changes in alpha-tubulin and beta-actin mRNA in the gerbil brain and effects of bifemelane hydrochloride. Asanuma, M., Ogawa, N., Hirata, H., Chou, H.H., Kondo, Y., Mori, A. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Increased type I procollagen mRNA levels and in vitro protein synthesis in the baboon model of chronic alcoholic liver disease. Zern, M.A., Leo, M.A., Giambrone, M.A., Lieber, C.S. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. The efficacy of reducing agents or antioxidants in blocking the formation of dense cells and irreversibly sickled cells in vitro. Gibson, X.A., Shartava, A., McIntyre, J., Monteiro, C.A., Zhang, Y., Shah, A., Campbell, N.F., Goodman, S.R. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Association between Cyclooxygenase expression and colorectal adenoma characteristics. Einspahr, J.G., Krouse, R.S., Yochim, J.M., Danenberg, P.V., Danenberg, K.D., Bhattacharyya, A.K., Martínez, M.E., Alberts, D.S. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Expressing antisense P0 RNA in Schwann cells perturbs myelination. Owens, G.C., Boyd, C.J. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of the GLI oncogene through fusion with the beta-actin gene (ACTB) in a group of distinctive pericytic neoplasms: pericytoma with t(7;12). Dahlén, A., Fletcher, C.D., Mertens, F., Fletcher, J.A., Perez-Atayde, A.R., Hicks, M.J., Debiec-Rychter, M., Sciot, R., Wejde, J., Wedin, R., Mandahl, N., Panagopoulos, I. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. FISH localization of human cytoplasmic actin genes ACTB to 7p22 and ACTG1 to 17q25 and characterization of related pseudogenes. Ueyama, H., Inazawa, J., Nishino, H., Ohkubo, I., Miwa, T. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Determining suitable internal standards for mRNA quantification of increasing cancer progression in human breast cells by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Morse, D.L., Carroll, D., Weberg, L., Borgstrom, M.C., Ranger-Moore, J., Gillies, R.J. Anal. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of prototypical drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers on mRNA expression of housekeeping genes in primary cultures of human and rat hepatocytes. Nishimura, M., Koeda, A., Suzuki, E., Shimizu, T., Kawano, Y., Nakayama, M., Satoh, T., Narimatsu, S., Naito, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of multiple thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs in human oocytes, cumulus cells, and granulosa cells. Zhang, S.S., Carrillo, A.J., Darling, D.S. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Beta-actin cannot be used as a control for gene expression in ovine interstitial cells derived from heart valves. Yperman, J., De Visscher, G., Holvoet, P., Flameng, W. J. Heart Valve Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones for human alpha-, beta-, and gamma-actin mRNAs: skeletal but not cytoplasmic actins have an amino-terminal cysteine that is subsequently removed. Gunning, P., Ponte, P., Okayama, H., Engel, J., Blau, H., Kedes, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Genotype-dependent down-regulation of gene expression and function of MDR1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells under acute inflammation. Markova, S., Nakamura, T., Sakaeda, T., Makimoto, H., Uchiyama, H., Okamura, N., Okumura, K. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Haplotype analysis of beta-actin gene for its association with sperm quality and boar fertility. Lin, C.L., Jennen, D.G., Ponsuksili, S., Tholen, E., Tesfaye, D., Schellander, K., Wimmers, K. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. A heterozygous mutation of beta-actin associated with neutrophil dysfunction and recurrent infection. Nunoi, H., Yamazaki, T., Tsuchiya, H., Kato, S., Malech, H.L., Matsuda, I., Kanegasaki, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Actin directly interacts with phospholipase D, inhibiting its activity. Lee, S., Park, J.B., Kim, J.H., Kim, Y., Kim, J.H., Shin, K.J., Lee, J.S., Ha, S.H., Suh, P.G., Ryu, S.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Indirect association of ezrin with F-actin: isoform specificity and calcium sensitivity. Shuster, C.B., Herman, I.M. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. A novel effect of EGF on mRNA stability. Jinno, Y., Merlino, G.T., Pastan, I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Cytoplasmic chaperonin containing TCP-1: structural and functional characterization. Melki, R., Batelier, G., Soulié, S., Williams, R.C. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Growth and density-dependent regulation of NO synthase by the actin cytoskeleton in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Kondrikov, D., Han, H.R., Block, E.R., Su, Y. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Actin is part of pre-initiation complexes and is necessary for transcription by RNA polymerase II. Hofmann, W.A., Stojiljkovic, L., Fuchsova, B., Vargas, G.M., Mavrommatis, E., Philimonenko, V., Kysela, K., Goodrich, J.A., Lessard, J.L., Hope, T.J., Hozak, P., de Lanerolle, P. Nat. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Effect of nuclear actin on endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Ou, H., Shen, Y.H., Utama, B., Wang, J., Wang, X., Coselli, J., Wang, X.L. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Tamoxifen-associated malignant endometrial tumors: pathologic features and expression of hormone receptors estrogen-alpha, estrogen-beta and progesterone; a case controlled study. Wilder, J.L., Shajahan, S., Khattar, N.H., Wilder, D.M., Yin, J., Rushing, R.S., Beaven, R., Kaetzel, C., Ueland, F.R., van Nagell, J.R., Kryscio, R.J., Lele, S.M. Gynecol. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Beta-actin mRNA localization is regulated by signal transduction mechanisms. Latham, V.M., Kislauskis, E.H., Singer, R.H., Ross, A.F. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. A member of the melanoma antigen-encoding gene (MAGE) family is expressed in human skin during wound healing. Becker, J.C., Gillitzer, R., Bröcker, E.B. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Molecular characterization of the Spirometra mansonoides genome: renaturation kinetics, methylation, and hybridization to human cDNA probes. Cox, G.S., Phares, C.K., Schmidt, R.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. Normalizing genes for quantitative RT-PCR in differentiating human intestinal epithelial cells and adenocarcinomas of the colon. Dydensborg, A.B., Herring, E., Auclair, J., Tremblay, E., Beaulieu, J.F. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  41. Estrogen receptor beta mRNA expression in normal and adenomatous pituitaries. Gittoes, N.J., McCabe, C.J., Sheppard, M.C., Franklyn, J.A. Pituitary (1999) [Pubmed]
  42. The RNA-binding protein HuR promotes cell migration and cell invasion by stabilizing the beta-actin mRNA in a U-rich-element-dependent manner. Dormoy-Raclet, V., Ménard, I., Clair, E., Kurban, G., Mazroui, R., Di Marco, S., von Roretz, C., Pause, A., Gallouzi, I.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  43. Profiling and verification of gene expression patterns in normal and malignant human prostate tissues by cDNA microarray analysis. Chaib, H., Cockrell, E.K., Rubin, M.A., Macoska, J.A. Neoplasia (2001) [Pubmed]
  44. Adhesion development and the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Svinarich, D.M., Zaher, F.M., Holmdahl, L., Chegini, N., Gonik, B., Diamond, M.P. Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  45. Identification of the disulfide-linked peptide in irreversibly sickled cell beta-actin. Bencsath, F.A., Shartava, A., Monteiro, C.A., Goodman, S.R. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  46. Destabilized adhesion in the gastric proliferative zone and c-Src kinase activation mark the development of early diffuse gastric cancer. Humar, B., Fukuzawa, R., Blair, V., Dunbier, A., More, H., Charlton, A., Yang, H.K., Kim, W.H., Reeve, A.E., Martin, I., Guilford, P. Cancer Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities