The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CCL20  -  chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Beta-chemokine exodus-1, C-C motif chemokine 20, CC chemokine LARC, CKb4, Exodus, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of CCL20


High impact information on CCL20


Chemical compound and disease context of CCL20


Biological context of CCL20

  • We report that MIP-3alpha/CCL20-induced calcium flux and chemotaxis can be enhanced significantly on peripheral blood and tonsillar B cells after activation by cross-linking surface Ag receptors [11].
  • Of particular interest is the fact that the enhanced activity on B cells was not associated with an increase in CCR6 expression as assessed by levels of receptor mRNA, surface staining, or MIP-3alpha/CCL20 binding sites, or by a change in the affinity of the receptor for ligand [11].
  • In this review, the discovery, the gene and protein structure, the in vitro biological activities, the cell and inducer specific expression and the tissue distribution of CCL20 and CCR6 are discussed [12].
  • Chemokine gene expression paralleled follicular maturation: in tonsils, where approximately 80% of follicles are polarized, CCL11 and CCL20 mRNA-positive cells were detected more frequently than in lymph nodes from adults, where about half of follicles are non-polarized [13].
  • RESULTS: Significant up-regulation for CCL20/CCR6 was detected in both cancer types [14].

Anatomical context of CCL20


Associations of CCL20 with chemical compounds

  • Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the human mast cells (HMC-1) express CCL20 mRNA and are able to produce a significant amount (32.4 ng/ml) of CCL20 protein following stimulation by calcium ionophore and phorbol myristate acetate [3].
  • Interestingly, the CCL20 response of mast cells to P. aeruginosa was relatively resistant to inhibition by the corticosteroid dexamethasone, interleukin-10, or cyclosporine, while GM-CSF production was potently inhibited [3].
  • However, P. aeruginosa-induced CCL20 production was blocked by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and a PKC pseudosubstrate [3].
  • These results indicate that the growth of a proportion of human HCC cells may be mediated by CCL20-CCR6 axis, like HuH7 cells, in an autocrine or paracrine manner [18].
  • Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), CCL2, and C chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) release was enhanced in response to all PAMPs tested, in a time- and dose-dependent manner [19].
  • The hypoxic synovial microenvironment may directly contribute to the persistent inflammation associated with JIA by increasing CCL20 production by SF monocytic cells, thus representing a potential therapeutic target [20].

Regulatory relationships of CCL20


Other interactions of CCL20

  • Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that CCL20/CCR6 may play a role in the recruitment of T cells to lesional psoriatic skin [15].
  • It is concluded that in addition to its role in homeostatic trafficking of leukocytes, LARC/MIP-3alpha can function as an inflammatory chemokine during host defense [24].
  • Similar results were obtained if gp120-treated cells were triggered by CCL21 and CCL20 [25].
  • IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, CCL20 were also up-regulated from six-fold to 30-fold in TcOB preparations from decayed teeth [26].
  • Significant CCL20 production did not occur following immunoglobulin E-mediated activation of CBMC under conditions which induced a substantial GM-CSF response [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CCL20

  • In mice, intradermal injection of IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha rapidly induced a local accumulation of transcripts for LARC/CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 with a lag of several hours in the latter [4].
  • Furthermore, we could demonstrate that CRC patients who developed liver metastases express significantly more CCL20 and CCL21 in the liver in comparison with an unaffected control group [27].
  • Total RNA was isolated and the expression of CCL20 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR [28].
  • For quantitative considerations, CXCL8, CCL20, interleukin 1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were determined in SF by ELISA [28].
  • Cell culture experiments, however, confirmed the ability of TNF-alpha in SF to induce CCL20 mRNA expression in blood PMN [28].


  1. Function of liver activation-regulated chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 20 is differently affected by cathepsin B and cathepsin D processing. Hasan, L., Mazzucchelli, L., Liebi, M., Lis, M., Hunger, R.E., Tester, A., Overall, C.M., Wolf, M. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Astrocytes produce dendritic cell-attracting chemokines in vitro and in multiple sclerosis lesions. Ambrosini, E., Remoli, M.E., Giacomini, E., Rosicarelli, B., Serafini, B., Lande, R., Aloisi, F., Coccia, E.M. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Selective early production of CCL20, or macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha, by human mast cells in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lin, T.J., Maher, L.H., Gomi, K., McCurdy, J.D., Garduno, R., Marshall, J.S. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Inducible expression of a CC chemokine liver- and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC)/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3 alpha/CCL20 by epidermal keratinocytes and its role in atopic dermatitis. Nakayama, T., Fujisawa, R., Yamada, H., Horikawa, T., Kawasaki, H., Hieshima, K., Izawa, D., Fujiie, S., Tezuka, T., Yoshie, O. Int. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Chemokines involved in protection from colitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Kristensen, N.N., Brudzewsky, D., Gad, M., Claesson, M.H. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. Yang, D., Chertov, O., Bykovskaia, S.N., Chen, Q., Buffo, M.J., Shogan, J., Anderson, M., Schröder, J.M., Wang, J.M., Howard, O.M., Oppenheim, J.J. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A functional role for interleukin-21 in promoting the synthesis of the T-cell chemoattractant, MIP-3alpha, by gut epithelial cells. Caruso, R., Fina, D., Peluso, I., Stolfi, C., Fantini, M.C., Gioia, V., Caprioli, F., Del Vecchio Blanco, G., Paoluzi, O.A., Macdonald, T.T., Pallone, F., Monteleone, G. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Novel markers of the human follicle-associated epithelium identified by genomic profiling and microdissection. Anderle, P., Rumbo, M., Sierro, F., Mansourian, R., Michetti, P., Roberts, M.A., Kraehenbuhl, J.P. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Increase of CCL20 expression by human gingival fibroblasts upon stimulation with cytokines and bacterial endotoxin. Hosokawa, Y., Hosokawa, I., Ozaki, K., Nakae, H., Matsuo, T. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Increased expression of MIP-3alpha/CCL20 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and its down-regulation by sulfasalazine and glucocorticoid treatment. Lee, H.J., Choi, S.C., Lee, M.H., Oh, H.M., Choi, E.Y., Choi, E.J., Yun, K.J., Seo, G.S., Kim, S.W., Lee, J.G., Han, W.C., Park, K.I., Jun, C.D. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Human B cells become highly responsive to macrophage-inflammatory protein-3 alpha/CC chemokine ligand-20 after cellular activation without changes in CCR6 expression or ligand binding. Liao, F., Shirakawa, A.K., Foley, J.F., Rabin, R.L., Farber, J.M. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The CC chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6. Schutyser, E., Struyf, S., Van Damme, J. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The chemokines CCL11, CCL20, CCL21, and CCL24 are preferentially expressed in polarized human secondary lymphoid follicles. Buri, C., Gutersohn, A., Hauser, C., Kappeler, A., Mueller, C. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Chemokine expression in hepatocellular carcinoma versus colorectal liver metastases. Rubie, C., Frick, V.O., Wagner, M., Weber, C., Kruse, B., Kempf, K., Konig, J., Rau, B., Schilling, M. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Up-regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha/CCL20 and CC chemokine receptor 6 in psoriasis. Homey, B., Dieu-Nosjean, M.C., Wiesenborn, A., Massacrier, C., Pin, J.J., Oldham, E., Catron, D., Buchanan, M.E., Müller, A., deWaal Malefyt, R., Deng, G., Orozco, R., Ruzicka, T., Lehmann, P., Lebecque, S., Caux, C., Zlotnik, A. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Up-regulation of CC chemokine ligand 20 expression in human airway epithelium by IL-17 through a JAK-independent but MEK/NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathway. Kao, C.Y., Huang, F., Chen, Y., Thai, P., Wachi, S., Kim, C., Tam, L., Wu, R. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Airway epithelial cells release MIP-3alpha/CCL20 in response to cytokines and ambient particulate matter. Reibman, J., Hsu, Y., Chen, L.C., Bleck, B., Gordon, T. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Chemokine CCL20 enhances the growth of HuH7 cells via phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK in vitro. Fujii, H., Itoh, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Yamauchi, N., Harano, Y., Nakajima, T., Minami, M., Okanoue, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Human keratinocytes express functional Toll-like receptor 3, 4, 5, and 9. Lebre, M.C., van der Aar, A.M., van Baarsen, L., van Capel, T.M., Schuitemaker, J.H., Kapsenberg, M.L., de Jong, E.C. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Hypoxic synovial environment and expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 3gamma/CCL20 in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Bosco, M.C., Delfino, S., Ferlito, F., Battaglia, F., Puppo, M., Gregorio, A., Gambini, C., Gattorno, M., Martini, A., Varesio, L. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of CCR6, the specific receptor for a novel lymphocyte-directed CC chemokine LARC. Baba, M., Imai, T., Nishimura, M., Kakizaki, M., Takagi, S., Hieshima, K., Nomiyama, H., Yoshie, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. CCL20 chemokine induces both osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast differentiation: Increased levels of CCL20 are expressed in subchondral bone tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Lisignoli, G., Piacentini, A., Cristino, S., Grassi, F., Cavallo, C., Cattini, L., Tonnarelli, B., Manferdini, C., Facchini, A. J. Cell. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC) expressed in liver. Chemotactic activity for lymphocytes and gene localization on chromosome 2. Hieshima, K., Imai, T., Opdenakker, G., Van Damme, J., Kusuda, J., Tei, H., Sakaki, Y., Takatsuki, K., Miura, R., Yoshie, O., Nomiyama, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulated production and molecular diversity of human liver and activation-regulated chemokine/macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha from normal and transformed cells. Schutyser, E., Struyf, S., Menten, P., Lenaerts, J.P., Conings, R., Put, W., Wuyts, A., Proost, P., Van Damme, J. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. HIV type 1 glycoprotein 120 inhibits human B cell chemotaxis to CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20, and CCL21. Badr, G., Borhis, G., Treton, D., Moog, C., Garraud, O., Richard, Y. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Differential regulation of immune responses by odontoblasts. Veerayutthwilai, O., Byers, M.R., Pham, T.T., Darveau, R.P., Dale, B.A. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of Chemokine Receptor CCR6 in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis. Rubie, C., Oliveira, V., Kempf, K., Wagner, M., Tilton, B., Rau, B., Kruse, B., Konig, J., Schilling, M. Tumour Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Extravasation into synovial tissue induces CCL20 mRNA expression in polymorphonuclear neutrophils of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Schlenk, J., Lorenz, H.M., Haas, J.P., Herrmann, M., Hohenberger, G., Kalden, J.R., Röllinghoff, M., Beuscher, H.U. J. Rheumatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities