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Gene Review

TAF9  -  TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AD-004, CGI-137, MGC1603, MGC3647, MGC5067, ...
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Disease relevance of TAF9

  • A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and biochemical experiments revealed that the minimal acidic activation domain of the herpes simplex virus VP16 protein undergoes an induced transition from random coil to alpha helix upon binding to its target protein, hTAFII31 (a human TFIID TATA box-binding protein-associated factor) [1].
  • In attempts to crystallize human AD-004, the gene was subcloned into a modified pET vector, pET21-DEST, with an N-terminal His(5) tag using the Gateway cloning system, followed by protein expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) [2].
  • AIM: To study correlation links between expression level of proteins p53, p21(WAF1/CIP), p16(INK4) and proliferative potential in human endometrial adenocarcinoma (EC) [3].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical analysis of expression level of Ki-67, p53, p21(WAF1/CIP) and p16(INK4) was carried out on surgically resected endometrial cancer samples (n = 74) [3].
  • Metabolic labeling of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-(3)H]methionine and immunoblotting using dimethyl arginine-specific antibodies demonstrated that p/CIP is specifically methylated in intact cells [4].

Psychiatry related information on TAF9

  • By increasing w(0), there is a sharp decrease in the CIP association free energy, and SSIPs are formed [5].
  • The elucidation of the molecular basis of p25 activation and CIP inhibition of Cdk5 activity may provide insight into mechanisms underlying the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and contribute to therapeutic strategies [6].
  • Delinquent adolescents (N = 32) aged 10-16 were given a battery of three psychometric measures to determine characteristics of depressive symptomatology, The CIP battery consisted of the Children's Depression Inventory the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale [7].

High impact information on TAF9

  • The adenoviral E1A oncoprotein represses transcriptional signaling by binding to p300/CBP and displacing PCAF and p/CIP proteins from the complex [8].
  • Antibodies directed against TAFII31 protein inhibit p53-activated but not basal transcription in vitro [9].
  • These results were confirmed by in vitro methylation of p/CIP using carboxy-terminal truncation mutants and synthetic peptides as substrates for CARM1 [4].
  • Analysis of methylation site mutants revealed that arginine methylation causes an increase in full-length p/CIP turnover as a result of enhanced degradation [4].
  • Remarkably, HFD-mediated interaction enhanced the DNA binding activity of each of the TAF6-TAF9 and TAF4b-TAF12 pairs and of a histone-like octamer complex composed of the four TAFs [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of TAF9

  • Patients who developed paresis had elevated daily peak blood glucose levels during 28 days of intensive care unit treatment: 166 (134, 200) mg/dL in CIP/CIM patients vs. 144 (132, 161) mg/dL in controls (median, quartiles) [11].
  • PI3K-Akt signaling is involved in the regulation of p21(WAF/CIP) expression and androgen-independent growth in prostate cancer cells [12].
  • (type strain BD(T) = CIP 108541T = CCUG 50184T; Mycobacterium chelonae-abscessus group) was resistant to the quinolones, tetracycline, macrolides and imipenem [13].
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% (CIP/DEX) otic suspension with that of neomycin 0.35%/polymyxin B 10,000 IU/mL/hydrocortisone 1.0% (N/P/H) otic suspension in patients with acute otitis externa (AOE) [14].
  • The influence of different treatments (i.e. cold, NaCl, phenol and anaerobiosis) encountered during the smoked salmon process was studied by analysing the survival capacity of two Shewanella putrefaciens strains (CIP 69.29 and J13.1) [15].

Biological context of TAF9

  • Gene expression analysis of cells treated with either TAF9 or TAF9b siRNAs indicates that the two proteins regulate different sets of genes with only a small overlap [16].
  • Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of TAF9 and TAF9b revealed that both genes are essential for cell viability [16].
  • We observed a differential induction of TAF9 and TAF9b during apoptosis that, together with their different ability to stabilize p53, points to distinct requirements for the two proteins in gene regulation [16].
  • Although we provide evidence that TAF9 and TAF9L are partly redundant, RNA interference experiments suggest that TAF9L is essential for HeLa cell growth [17].
  • To investigate the roles of core promoter elements in transcriptional activation in vertebrates, we examined expression and factor occupancy on representative promoters in chicken DT40 cells containing a conditional TATA binding protein (TBP)-associated factor 9 allele (TAF9) [18].

Anatomical context of TAF9

  • Other studies on cell lines have reported that bcl-2 over-expression is related to suppression of p21 (WAF1/CIP) [19].
  • The adrenal gland protein AD-004 was identified in the human adrenal gland [2].
  • The study sheds new light upon the role of CIP/KIP protein family in tumors of salivary glands and paranasal sinuses [20].
  • Northern analysis of various organs in human showed one band in heart, brain, skeletal muscle and pancreas, whose size is approximately 1.1 kb which identical to that of human TAFII31 mRNA, although the size of rat human TAFII31 mRNA is approximately 2.7 kb [21].
  • In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, serum deprivation results in the redistribution of p/CIP to the cytoplasmic compartment and stimulation with growth factors or tumor-promoting phorbol esters promotes p/CIP shuttling into the nucleus [22].

Associations of TAF9 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TAF9

  • TFIID and TFTC complexes in which both TAF9 and TAF9b are present exist [16].
  • Characterization of hCINAP, a novel coilin-interacting protein encoded by a transcript from the transcription factor TAFIID32 locus [25].
  • Decreased transcriptional activation by N-terminal deletions of CIITA is correlated directly with their reduced binding to TAFII32 [26].
  • Inhibition of hTAFII32-binding implicated in the transcriptional repression by central regions of mutant p53 proteins [27].

Other interactions of TAF9

  • Furthermore, HFD-mediated interaction stimulated sequence-specific binding by TAF6 and TAF9 [10].
  • TAF9b (formerly TAF9L) is a bona fide TAF that has unique and overlapping roles with TAF9 [16].
  • We conclude that interactions between TAFII32 and CIITA are responsible for activation of class II genes [26].
  • The class II trans-activator CIITA interacts with the TBP-associated factor TAFII32 [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TAF9


  1. Induced alpha helix in the VP16 activation domain upon binding to a human TAF. Uesugi, M., Nyanguile, O., Lu, H., Levine, A.J., Verdine, G.L. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human adrenal gland protein AD-004. Ren, H., Liang, Y., Li, R., Ding, H., Qiu, S., Lu, S., An, J., Li, L., Luo, M., Zheng, X., Su, X.D. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of the cell cycle regulators p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p16(INK4a) in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Buchynska, L.G., Nesina, I.P. Experimental oncology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The activity and stability of the transcriptional coactivator p/CIP/SRC-3 are regulated by CARM1-dependent methylation. Naeem, H., Cheng, D., Zhao, Q., Underhill, C., Tini, M., Bedford, M.T., Torchia, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Ion Pairs of Crystal Violet in Sodium Bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate Reverse Micelles. Oliveira, C.S., Bastos, E.L., Duarte, E.L., Itri, R., Baptista, M.S. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A peptide derived from cyclin-dependent kinase activator (p35) specifically inhibits Cdk5 activity and phosphorylation of tau protein in transfected cells. Zheng, Y.L., Li, B.S., Amin, N.D., Albers, W., Pant, H.C. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The CIP battery: identification of depression in a juvenile delinquent population. Cole, E., Kumchy, C.I. Journal of clinical psychology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. A viral mechanism for inhibition of p300 and PCAF acetyltransferase activity. Chakravarti, D., Ogryzko, V., Kao, H.Y., Nash, A., Chen, H., Nakatani, Y., Evans, R.M. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Human TAFII31 protein is a transcriptional coactivator of the p53 protein. Lu, H., Levine, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Core promoter binding by histone-like TAF complexes. Shao, H., Revach, M., Moshonov, S., Tzuman, Y., Gazit, K., Albeck, S., Unger, T., Dikstein, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Bercker, S., Weber-Carstens, S., Deja, M., Grimm, C., Wolf, S., Behse, F., Busch, T., Falke, K.J., Kaisers, U. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. PI3K-Akt signaling is involved in the regulation of p21(WAF/CIP) expression and androgen-independent growth in prostate cancer cells. Lu, S., Ren, C., Liu, Y., Epner, D.E. Int. J. Oncol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. rpoB gene sequence-based characterization of emerging non-tuberculous mycobacteria with descriptions of Mycobacterium bolletii sp. nov., Mycobacterium phocaicum sp. nov. and Mycobacterium aubagnense sp. nov. Adékambi, T., Berger, P., Raoult, D., Drancourt, M. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficacy and safety of topical ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone versus neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone for otitis externa. Roland, P.S., Pien, F.D., Schultz, C.C., Henry, D.C., Conroy, P.J., Wall, G.M., Garadi, R., Dupre, S.J., Potts, S.L., Hogg, L.G., Stroman, D.W. Current medical research and opinion. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Do stresses encountered during the smoked salmon process influence the survival of the spoiling bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens? Leblanc, L., Leroi, F., Hartke, A., Auffray, Y. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. TAF9b (formerly TAF9L) is a bona fide TAF that has unique and overlapping roles with TAF9. Frontini, M., Soutoglou, E., Argentini, M., Bole-Feysot, C., Jost, B., Scheer, E., Tora, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. In vivo functional analysis of the histone 3-like TAF9 and a TAF9-related factor, TAF9L. Chen, Z., Manley, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Core promoter elements and TAFs contribute to the diversity of transcriptional activation in vertebrates. Chen, Z., Manley, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Interaction between bcl-2 and p21 (WAF1/CIP1) in breast carcinomas with wild-type p53. Bukholm, I.K., Nesland, J.M., Kåresen, R., Jacobsen, U., Børresen-Dale, A.L. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Altered expression of cell cycle regulators p21, p27, and p53 in tumors of salivary glands and paranasal sinuses. Affolter, A., Helmbrecht, S., Finger, S., Hörmann, K., Götte, K. Oncol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Rat TAFII31 gene is induced upon programmed cell death in differentiated PC12 cells deprived of NGF. Aoki, T., Koike, T., Nakano, T., Shibahara, K., Nishimura, H., Kikuchi, H., Honjo, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Microtubule-dependent subcellular redistribution of the transcriptional coactivator p/CIP. Qutob, M.S., Bhattacharjee, R.N., Pollari, E., Yee, S.P., Torchia, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Recruitment of the NCoA/SRC-1/p160 family of transcriptional coactivators by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator complex. Beischlag, T.V., Wang, S., Rose, D.W., Torchia, J., Reisz-Porszasz, S., Muhammad, K., Nelson, W.E., Probst, M.R., Rosenfeld, M.G., Hankinson, O. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. The synergistic effect of dexamethasone and all-trans-retinoic acid on hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression involves the coactivator p300. Wang, X.L., Herzog, B., Waltner-Law, M., Hall, R.K., Shiota, M., Granner, D.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of hCINAP, a novel coilin-interacting protein encoded by a transcript from the transcription factor TAFIID32 locus. Santama, N., Ogg, S.C., Malekkou, A., Zographos, S.E., Weis, K., Lamond, A.I. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. The class II trans-activator CIITA interacts with the TBP-associated factor TAFII32. Fontes, J.D., Jiang, B., Peterlin, B.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Inhibition of hTAFII32-binding implicated in the transcriptional repression by central regions of mutant p53 proteins. Tung, S.F., Chuang, J.Y., Lin, C.T., Lai, M.Y., Wu, C.W., Lin, Y.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning of xSRC-3, a novel transcription coactivator from Xenopus, that is related to AIB1, p/CIP, and TIF2. Kim, H.J., Lee, S.K., Na, S.Y., Choi, H.S., Lee, J.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. pH dependence and structural interpretation of the reactions of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase with hydrogen peroxide, ferulic acid, and 2,2'-azinobis. Abelskov, A.K., Smith, A.T., Rasmussen, C.B., Dunford, H.B., Welinder, K.G. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Characteristics of Massilia timonae and Massilia timonae-like isolates from human patients, with an emended description of the species. Lindquist, D., Murrill, D., Burran, W.P., Winans, G., Janda, J.M., Probert, W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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