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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 

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TYR  -  tyrosinase

Homo sapiens

 
 
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Disease relevance of TYR

 

Psychiatry related information on TYR

 

High impact information on TYR

  • We have previously shown that MITF transactivates the gene for tyrosinase, a key enzyme for melanogenesis, and is critically involved in melanocyte differentiation [11].
  • These two patients were each a compound heterozygote for a different pathologic mutant allele and an allele containing a 'normal' polymorphism, Arg402Gln, which results in a tyrosinase polypeptide with reduced thermal stability [12].
  • Autosomal recessive ocular albinism associated with a functionally significant tyrosinase gene polymorphism [12].
  • In these patients, AROA thus appears to represent a clinically mild form of OCA1, with a fixed visual deficit resulting from low tyrosinase activity during fetal development but with normal pigmentation of the skin and hair postnatally [12].
  • One of the two major autosomal recessive forms involves the tyrosinase gene (OCA1), while the other form (OCA2) has recently been associated with alterations of the P gene on chromosome 15 [13].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of TYR

 

Biological context of TYR

  • High-level expression of TYR produced newly synthesized melanin and induced cell death in all of these cells [19].
  • We show that TYR and OCA2 have measurable effects on skin pigmentation differences between the west African and west European parental populations [20].
  • The evidence also suggests that at least some of the introns within the TYR, TYRP1, and TYRP2 coding regions were gained after duplication and that intron slippage is unlikely to have occurred [21].
  • These results suggest that hinokitiol-induced ERK phosphorylation reduces MITF and TYR transcription, and mediates the action of hinokitiol on melanogenesis [22].
  • In time-course experiments, the increase in cell number and tyrosinase activity became evident after one treatment of the melanocytes with 100 nM alpha-MSH for 48 hr [23].
 

Anatomical context of TYR

 

Associations of TYR with chemical compounds

 

Physical interactions of TYR

 

Enzymatic interactions of TYR

 

Regulatory relationships of TYR

 

Other interactions of TYR

  • We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as "OCA3."[3]
  • Tyrosinase-positive OCA (OCA2), which is the most common, affects approximately 1/3,900 newborns and has a carrier frequency of approximately 1/33 [42].
  • Functional analysis of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in pigment cell-specific transcription of the human tyrosinase family genes [43].
  • The DT gene is a member of the tyrosinase gene family and specifically expressed in melanin-producing cells [44].
  • In five out of six cases high numbers of CD8(+)/tetramer(+) cells could be detected by flow cytometry, and in four patients lymphocyte populations specific for two different melanoma antigens (Melan-A/MART1 and tyrosinase) were contemporaneously present [45].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TYR

  • Western blot analysis and measurement of enzyme activity revealed that the expression of TYRP1 or DCT had little effect on the amount or activity of cointroduced TYR in either the melanocytic or nonmelanocytic cells [19].
  • RESULTS: the nested RT-PCR amplified the TYR and TYRP1 sequences from 14 and 2 of the 30 healthy bloods, respectively [46].
  • With the recent availability of novel antibodies against melanoma antigens tyrosinase and MART-1, it is important to validate their usefulness in pathology practice and in screening patients for immunotherapy treatment [5].
  • A decreasing CTL response against the internal tyrosinase peptide was documented in 1 patient through the course of vaccination and a decrease in DTH reactions [47].
  • Immunoblotting analysis with anti-tyrosinase antibody (alpha Ty-SP) demonstrated the amount of tyrosinase was slightly increased in TRP-1 overexpressing cells but slightly decreased in anti-sense infectant cells [48].

References

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  2. Prostate cancer risk: associations with ultraviolet radiation, tyrosinase and melanocortin-1 receptor genotypes. Luscombe, C.J., French, M.E., Liu, S., Saxby, M.F., Jones, P.W., Fryer, A.A., Strange, R.C. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
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  17. TYRP2-mediated resistance to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) in human melanoma cells is independent of tyrosinase and TYRP1 expression and melanin content. Pak, B.J., Li, Q., Kerbel, R.S., Ben-David, Y. Melanoma Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Abnormal acidification of melanoma cells induces tyrosinase retention in the early secretory pathway. Halaban, R., Patton, R.S., Cheng, E., Svedine, S., Trombetta, E.S., Wahl, M.L., Ariyan, S., Hebert, D.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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