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MeSH Review

Weight Gain

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Disease relevance of Weight Gain


Psychiatry related information on Weight Gain


High impact information on Weight Gain

  • Interestingly, a high-fat diet increases the TIF2/SRC-1 expression ratio, which may contribute to weight gain [11].
  • (Feed efficiency is the ratio of weight gain to food intake.) Consistent with increased fat mass, Mc3r(-/-) mice are hyperleptinaemic and male Mc3r(-/-) mice develop mild hyperinsulinaemia [12].
  • As compared with their weight in late September or early October, the study subjects had an average net weight gain of 0.48+/-2.22 kg in late February or March (P=0.003) [13].
  • The mean dose of prednisone, the number of patients taking antihypertensive medications, the average number of episodes of rejection and of infection during the study period, and weight gain did not differ significantly between the groups [14].
  • Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Weight Gain

  • Valproate was associated more frequently than carbamazepine with a weight gain of more than 5.5 kg (12 lb) (20 percent vs. 8 percent, P less than 0.001), with hair loss or change in texture (12 percent vs. 6 percent, P = 0.02), and with tremor (45 percent vs. 22 percent, P less than 0.001) [16].
  • Habitual consumption of ethanol in excess of energy needs probably favors lipid storage and weight gain [17].
  • Both salts induced substantial and comparable sodium retention, weight gain, and suppression of plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone, but supplemental sodium chloride increased plasma volume and urinary excretion of calcium, whereas sodium citrate did not [18].
  • Relatively low plasma leptin concentrations precede weight gain in Pima Indians [19].
  • However, these rats showed the same reduced acceptance of sucrose solutions, enhanced rejection of quinine solutions, and exaggerated weight gain on a high-fat diet as did other rats made obese by medial hypothalamic lesions alone [20].

Biological context of Weight Gain


Anatomical context of Weight Gain


Gene context of Weight Gain

  • The Inppl1(-/-) mice are, however, highly resistant to weight gain when placed on a high-fat diet [31].
  • Moreover, the Socs3-deficient mice were resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain and hyperleptinemia, and insulin-sensitivity was retained [32].
  • Furthermore, BDNF infusion into the brain suppressed the hyperphagia and excessive weight gain observed on higher-fat diets in mice with deficient MC4R signaling [33].
  • Here we demonstrate that male Ghrl-/- mice are protected from the rapid weight gain induced by early exposure to a high-fat diet 3 weeks after weaning (6 weeks of age) [7].
  • Nicotine abstinent subjects, but not nicotine-naive controls, experienced a 35% appetite suppression and a 25% weight gain reduction following acute and chronic administration, respectively, of CRF-BP ligand inhibitor [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Weight Gain


  1. Comparison of insulin regimens in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Yki-Järvinen, H., Kauppila, M., Kujansuu, E., Lahti, J., Marjanen, T., Niskanen, L., Rajala, S., Ryysy, L., Salo, S., Seppälä, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone in recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Silverstein, J., Maclaren, N., Riley, W., Spillar, R., Radjenovic, D., Johnson, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone. Rosenberg, S.A., Lotze, M.T., Muul, L.M., Chang, A.E., Avis, F.P., Leitman, S., Linehan, W.M., Robertson, C.N., Lee, R.E., Rubin, J.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. A multicenter trial of oral zidovudine in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. The Protocol 043 Study Group. McKinney, R.E., Maha, M.A., Connor, E.M., Feinberg, J., Scott, G.B., Wulfsohn, M., McIntosh, K., Borkowsky, W., Modlin, J.F., Weintrub, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. A candidate gene for the mouse mutation tubby. Noben-Trauth, K., Naggert, J.K., North, M.A., Nishina, P.M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. A comparison of sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation. Hurt, R.D., Sachs, D.P., Glover, E.D., Offord, K.P., Johnston, J.A., Dale, L.C., Khayrallah, M.A., Schroeder, D.R., Glover, P.N., Sullivan, C.R., Croghan, I.T., Sullivan, P.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity. Wortley, K.E., del Rincon, J.P., Murray, J.D., Garcia, K., Iida, K., Thorner, M.O., Sleeman, M.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Intestinal expression of human apolipoprotein A-IV in transgenic mice fails to influence dietary lipid absorption or feeding behavior. Aalto-Setälä, K., Bisgaier, C.L., Ho, A., Kieft, K.A., Traber, M.G., Kayden, H.J., Ramakrishnan, R., Walsh, A., Essenburg, A.D., Breslow, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Serum leptin and gonadotropin levels in patients with anorexia nervosa during weight gain. Ballauff, A., Ziegler, A., Emons, G., Sturm, G., Blum, W.F., Remschmidt, H., Hebebrand, J. Mol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative efficacy and safety of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus haloperidol. Lieberman, J.A., Tollefson, G., Tohen, M., Green, A.I., Gur, R.E., Kahn, R., McEvoy, J., Perkins, D., Sharma, T., Zipursky, R., Wei, H., Hamer, R.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. SRC-1 and TIF2 control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Picard, F., Géhin, M., Annicotte, J., Rocchi, S., Champy, M.F., O'Malley, B.W., Chambon, P., Auwerx, J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Inactivation of the mouse melanocortin-3 receptor results in increased fat mass and reduced lean body mass. Chen, A.S., Marsh, D.J., Trumbauer, M.E., Frazier, E.G., Guan, X.M., Yu, H., Rosenblum, C.I., Vongs, A., Feng, Y., Cao, L., Metzger, J.M., Strack, A.M., Camacho, R.E., Mellin, T.N., Nunes, C.N., Min, W., Fisher, J., Gopal-Truter, S., MacIntyre, D.E., Chen, H.Y., Van der Ploeg, L.H. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. A prospective study of holiday weight gain. Yanovski, J.A., Yanovski, S.Z., Sovik, K.N., Nguyen, T.T., O'Neil, P.M., Sebring, N.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. A controlled trial of exercise rehabilitation after heart transplantation. Kobashigawa, J.A., Leaf, D.A., Lee, N., Gleeson, M.P., Liu, H., Hamilton, M.A., Moriguchi, J.D., Kawata, N., Einhorn, K., Herlihy, E., Laks, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. Jorenby, D.E., Leischow, S.J., Nides, M.A., Rennard, S.I., Johnston, J.A., Hughes, A.R., Smith, S.S., Muramoto, M.L., Daughton, D.M., Doan, K., Fiore, M.C., Baker, T.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. A comparison of valproate with carbamazepine for the treatment of complex partial seizures and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults. The Department of Veterans Affairs Epilepsy Cooperative Study No. 264 Group. Mattson, R.H., Cramer, J.A., Collins, J.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of ethanol on fat storage in healthy subjects. Suter, P.M., Schutz, Y., Jequier, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. "Salt-sensitive" essential hypertension in men. Is the sodium ion alone important? Kurtz, T.W., Al-Bander, H.A., Morris, R.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Relatively low plasma leptin concentrations precede weight gain in Pima Indians. Ravussin, E., Pratley, R.E., Maffei, M., Wang, H., Friedman, J.M., Bennett, P.H., Bogardus, C. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Selective blockade of hypothalamic hyperphagia and obesity in rats by serotonin-depleting midbrain lesions. Coscina, D.V., Stancer, H.C. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Insulin resistance associated with lower rates of weight gain in Pima Indians. Swinburn, B.A., Nyomba, B.L., Saad, M.F., Zurlo, F., Raz, I., Knowler, W.C., Lillioja, S., Bogardus, C., Ravussin, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Interleukin-1-induced anorexia in the rat. Influence of prostaglandins. Hellerstein, M.K., Meydani, S.N., Meydani, M., Wu, K., Dinarello, C.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Evaluation of carbenoxolone sodium in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Nagy, G.S. Gastroenterology (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. A pilot study of pioglitazone treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Promrat, K., Lutchman, G., Uwaifo, G.I., Freedman, R.J., Soza, A., Heller, T., Doo, E., Ghany, M., Premkumar, A., Park, Y., Liang, T.J., Yanovski, J.A., Kleiner, D.E., Hoofnagle, J.H. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Body-composition changes in patients who gain weight while receiving megestrol acetate. Loprinzi, C.L., Schaid, D.J., Dose, A.M., Burnham, N.L., Jensen, M.D. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in immunoglobulin deficiency. Effect of corticosteroids and tetracycline. Diaz-Buxo, J.A., Hermans, P.E., Huizenga, K.A. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. In vivo immune responses of mice during carcinogenesis by ultraviolet irradiation. Kripke, M.L., Lofgreen, J.S., Beard, J., Jessup, J.M., Fisher, M.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. FK506 increases permeability in rat intestine by inhibiting mitochondrial function. Madsen, K.L., Yanchar, N.L., Sigalet, D.L., Reigel, T., Fedorak, R.N. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity. Lambert, P.D., Anderson, K.D., Sleeman, M.W., Wong, V., Tan, J., Hijarunguru, A., Corcoran, T.L., Murray, J.D., Thabet, K.E., Yancopoulos, G.D., Wiegand, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. E-selectin ligands mediate tumor necrosis factor-induced neutrophil sequestration and pulmonary edema in guinea pig lungs. Lo, S.K., Bevilacqua, B., Malik, A.B. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Absence of the lipid phosphatase SHIP2 confers resistance to dietary obesity. Sleeman, M.W., Wortley, K.E., Lai, K.M., Gowen, L.C., Kintner, J., Kline, W.O., Garcia, K., Stitt, T.N., Yancopoulos, G.D., Wiegand, S.J., Glass, D.J. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Socs3 deficiency in the brain elevates leptin sensitivity and confers resistance to diet-induced obesity. Mori, H., Hanada, R., Hanada, T., Aki, D., Mashima, R., Nishinakamura, H., Torisu, T., Chien, K.R., Yasukawa, H., Yoshimura, A. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor regulates energy balance downstream of melanocortin-4 receptor. Xu, B., Goulding, E.H., Zang, K., Cepoi, D., Cone, R.D., Jones, K.R., Tecott, L.H., Reichardt, L.F. Nat. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein ligand inhibitor blunts excessive weight gain in genetically obese Zucker rats and rats during nicotine withdrawal. Heinrichs, S.C., Lapsansky, J., Behan, D.P., Chan, R.K., Sawchenko, P.E., Lorang, M., Ling, N., Vale, W.W., De Souza, E.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Chronic ethanol ingestion impairs alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function and predisposes to endotoxin-mediated acute edematous lung injury in rats. Holguin, F., Moss, I., Brown, L.A., Guidot, D.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Nutritional, hepatic, and metabolic effects of cachectin/tumor necrosis factor in rats receiving total parenteral nutrition. Matsui, J., Cameron, R.G., Kurian, R., Kuo, G.C., Jeejeebhoy, K.N. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors control conditioned drug seeking. De Vries, T.J., Schoffelmeer, A.N. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Hypothalamic responses to long-chain fatty acids are nutritionally regulated. Morgan, K., Obici, S., Rossetti, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Augmentation of collagen arthritis by synthetic analogues of retinoic acid. Trentham, D.E., Brinckerhoff, C.E. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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