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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Gestational Age

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Disease relevance of Gestational Age


Psychiatry related information on Gestational Age


High impact information on Gestational Age

  • Thirty-six preterm infants (birth weight, less than or equal to 1250 g and gestational age, less than or equal to 30 weeks) who were dependent on oxygen and mechanical ventilation at two weeks of age received a 42-day course of dexamethasone (n = 13), an 18-day course of dexamethasone (n = 12), or saline placebo (n = 11) [11].
  • The treatment arrested labor for at least three days in 61 per cent of patients; gestation was extended by 14.1 +/- 1.1 weeks (mean +/- S.E.M.) in infants with the earliest gestational age at treatment (20 to 25 weeks) and by 2.3 +/- 0.7 weeks in those with the latest gestational age (36 to 37 weeks) [12].
  • Cord levels of C peptide in infants of diabetic mothers were elevated at the earliest gestational age studied (less than 34 weeks) and were directly related to the severity of maternal diabetes, as assessed by the White classification [13].
  • However, there was a definite increase in acetaminophen oxidation with fetal age [14].
  • Fetal plasma cholesterol levels showed a strong inverse correlation with fetal age (R = -0.88, P < 0.0001) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gestational Age


Biological context of Gestational Age


Anatomical context of Gestational Age


Associations of Gestational Age with chemical compounds

  • The blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations also increased significantly in infants who were appropriate but not in those who were small for gestational age [31].
  • Neither oxytocin, catecholamines, prostaglandins, nor indomethacin exerted significant effects on ACTH secretion, either alone or in combination with hCRF or AVP during the gestational ages studied [32].
  • To test an artificial surfactant in vivo, six 120-d gestational age lambs were treated at birth with a mixture of a 9:1 M ratio of [14C]dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPC) and phosphatidylglycerol at a dose of 100 mg DPC/kg [33].
  • The distribution of taurocholate between liver, intestine, and the remainder of the carcass was determined for rats of gestational age 19 d to 5 d after birth [34].
  • The types of malformations induced by oral arotinoid treatment were essentially identical to those found after maternal treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid or other teratogenic retinoids during the same gestational age [35].

Gene context of Gestational Age

  • Of note, telomerase activity in the kidney is only present at those gestational ages when full-length hTERT message is expressed (until approximately week 15), with spliced transcripts continuing to be expressed at later stages of development [36].
  • The human telomerase RNA subunit is expressed in all three tissues at all gestational ages examined. hTERT expression correlates with telomerase activity in the liver, where both are expressed at all ages surveyed, and in the heart, where both are present until the 11th gestational week but not thereafter [36].
  • Consistent with these data, EBI3 levels were strongly up-regulated in sera from pregnant women and gradually increased with gestational age [37].
  • In contrast, IGFBP-1 levels were low in MS (24.9 +/- 3.5 ng/mL) and showed no gestational age dependence [38].
  • CRF had no effect on i beta-END/LPH or alpha MSH secretion from neurointermediate lobes regardless of fetal age [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gestational Age


  1. Cocaine use in pregnancy. Chasnoff, I.J., Burns, W.J., Schnoll, S.H., Burns, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy. de Veciana, M., Major, C.A., Morgan, M.A., Asrat, T., Toohey, J.S., Lien, J.M., Evans, A.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Acetylcholinesterase in human amniotic fluid: An index of fetal neural development? Chubb, I.W., Pilowsky, P.M., Springell, H.J., Pollard, A.C. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Iron overload, free radical damage, and rhesus haemolytic disease. Berger, H.M., Lindeman, J.H., van Zoeren-Grobben, D., Houdkamp, E., Schrijver, J., Kanhai, H.H. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of erythropoietin by the human placenta. Conrad, K.P., Benyo, D.F., Westerhausen-Larsen, A., Miles, T.M. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in human fetal tissues: fetal and maternal factors. D'Ambrosio, S.M., Samuel, M.J., Dutta-Choudhury, T.A., Wani, A.A. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of environmental factors on perinatal outcome: neurological development in cases of intrauterine growth retardation and school performance of children perinatally exposed to ionizing radiation. Ikenoue, T., Ikeda, T., Ibara, S., Otake, M., Schull, W.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. The preterm prediction study: effect of gestational age and cause of preterm birth on subsequent obstetric outcome. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Mercer, B.M., Goldenberg, R.L., Moawad, A.H., Meis, P.J., Iams, J.D., Das, A.F., Caritis, S.N., Miodovnik, M., Menard, M.K., Thurnau, G.R., Dombrowski, M.P., Roberts, J.M., McNellis, D. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Transmission of hepatitis C virus to infants of human immunodeficiency virus-negative intravenous drug-using mothers: rate of infection and assessment of risk factors for transmission. Spencer, J.D., Latt, N., Beeby, P.J., Collins, E., Saunders, J.B., McCaughan, G.W., Cossart, Y.E. J. Viral Hepat. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Psychological status of in vitro fertilization patients during pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Klock, S.C., Greenfeld, D.A. Fertil. Steril. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. A controlled trial of dexamethasone in preterm infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Cummings, J.J., D'Eugenio, D.B., Gross, S.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. The cost effectiveness of stopping preterm labor with beta-adrenergic treatment. Korenbrot, C.C., Aalto, L.H., Laros, R.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. The infant of the diabetic mother: correlation of increased cord C-peptide levels with macrosomia and hypoglycemia. Sosenko, I.R., Kitzmiller, J.L., Loo, S.W., Blix, P., Rubenstein, A.H., Gabbay, K.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Acetaminophen: potentially toxic metabolite formed by human fetal and adult liver microsomes and isolated fetal liver cells. Rollins, D.E., von Bahr, C., Glaumann, H., Moldéus, P., Rane, A. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Fatty streak formation occurs in human fetal aortas and is greatly enhanced by maternal hypercholesterolemia. Intimal accumulation of low density lipoprotein and its oxidation precede monocyte recruitment into early atherosclerotic lesions. Napoli, C., D'Armiento, F.P., Mancini, F.P., Postiglione, A., Witztum, J.L., Palumbo, G., Palinski, W. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Circulating glucocorticoid bioactivity in the preterm newborn after antenatal betamethasone treatment. Kajantie, E., Raivio, T., Jänne, O.A., Hovi, P., Dunkel, L., Andersson, S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. Liet, J.M., Piloquet, H., Marchini, J.S., Maugère, P., Bobin, C., Rozé, J.C., Darmaun, D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Maturational changes of theophylline pharmacokinetics in preterm infants. Dothey, C.I., Tserng, K.Y., Kaw, S., King, K.C. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Coffee consumption as a factor in iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women and their infants in Costa Rica. Muñoz, L.M., Lönnerdal, B., Keen, C.L., Dewey, K.G. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Fetal growth and the function of the adrenal cortex in preterm infants. Bolt, R.J., van Weissenbruch, M.M., Popp-Snijders, C., Sweep, C.G., Lafeber, H.N., Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Persistent glucose production during glucose infusion in the neonate. Cowett, R.M., Oh, W., Schwartz, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Alterations of human placental epidermal growth factor receptor in intrauterine growth retardation. Fondacci, C., Alsat, E., Gabriel, R., Blot, P., Nessmann, C., Evain-Brion, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Scarless wound repair: a human fetal skin model. Lorenz, H.P., Longaker, M.T., Perkocha, L.A., Jennings, R.W., Harrison, M.R., Adzick, N.S. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization and isolation of ductular cells coexpressing neural cell adhesion molecule and Bcl-2 from primary cholangiopathies and ductal plate malformations. Fabris, L., Strazzabosco, M., Crosby, H.A., Ballardini, G., Hubscher, S.G., Kelly, D.A., Neuberger, J.M., Strain, A.J., Joplin, R. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Glucose tolerance and resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in men aged 70 years in relation to size at birth. McKeigue, P.M., Lithell, H.O., Leon, D.A. Diabetologia (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Deposition of fibronectin and laminin in the basement membrane of the rat parietal yolk sac: immunohistochemical and biosynthetic studies. Amenta, P.S., Clark, C.C., Martinez-Hernandez, A. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Morphological development of the pulmonary vascular bed in fetal lambs. Levin, D.L., Rudolph, A.M., Heymann, M.A., Phibbs, R.H. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Onset of cell-specific gene expression in the developing mouse pancreas. Gittes, G.K., Rutter, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Gestational changes in pulmonary vascular responses in fetal lambs in utero. Lewis, A.B., Heymann, M.A., Rudolph, A.M. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA and protein are present in human placental and uterine cells at early and late stages of gestation. Chen, H.L., Yang, Y.P., Hu, X.L., Yelavarthi, K.K., Fishback, J.L., Hunt, J.S. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of oral alanine feeding on blood glucose, plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in small-for-gestational-age infants. Williams, P.R., Fiser, R.H., Sperling, M.A., Oh, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Hypophysiotropic and neuromodulatory regulation of adrenocorticotropin in the human fetal pituitary gland. Blumenfeld, Z., Jaffe, R.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Sequential treatments of premature lambs with an artificial surfactant and natural surfactant. Ikegami, M., Jobe, A., Jacobs, H., Jones, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Taurocholate pool size and distribution in the fetal rat. Little, J.M., Richey, J.E., Van Thiel, D.H., Lester, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  35. Comparative teratogenic activity of cancer chemopreventive retinoidal benzoic acid congeners (arotinoids). Flanagan, J.L., Willhite, C.C., Ferm, V.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Telomerase activity in human development is regulated by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) transcription and by alternate splicing of hTERT transcripts. Ulaner, G.A., Hu, J.F., Vu, T.H., Giudice, L.C., Hoffman, A.R. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3, an interleukin-12 p40-related molecule, throughout human pregnancy: involvement of syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts. Devergne, O., Coulomb-L'Herminé, A., Capel, F., Moussa, M., Capron, F. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and proteolyzed IGFBP-3 in embryonic cavities in early human pregnancy: their potential relevance to maternal-embryonic and fetal interactions. Nonoshita, L.D., Wathen, N.C., Dsupin, B.A., Chard, T., Giudice, L.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of synthetic corticotropin-releasing factor and dopamine on the release of immunoreactive beta-endorphin/beta-lipotropin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone from human fetal pituitaries in vitro. Gibbs, D.M., Stewart, R.D., Liu, J.H., Vale, W., Rivier, J., Yen, S.S. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  40. Serum relaxin and pelvic pain of pregnancy. MacLennan, A.H., Nicolson, R., Green, R.C., Bath, M. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Cell-specific localization of CFTR mRNA shows developmentally regulated expression in human fetal tissues. Tizzano, E.F., Chitayat, D., Buchwald, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Amniotic fluid reactivity detected by somatomedin C radioreceptor assay: correlation with growth hormone, prolactin and fetal renal maturation. Chochinov, R.H., Ketupanya, A., Mariz, I.K., Underwood, L.E., Daughaday, W.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  43. Developmental pattern of urinary epidermal growth factor in the premature infant and the influence of gender. Scott, S.M., Guardian, C.M., Angelus, P., Backstrom, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1991) [Pubmed]
  44. Influence of changes in lactase activity and small-intestinal mucosal growth on lactose digestion and absorption in preterm infants. Shulman, R.J., Wong, W.W., Smith, E.O. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2005) [Pubmed]
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