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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Croton

  • We now report studies comparing HDL before and during an acute phase response (APR) in both humans and a croton oil rabbit model [1].
  • Similar treatments with cis-DDP caused a significant increase in the number of skin papillomas in female CD-1 mice given promoting treatments with croton oil; the DDCP and SHP complexes had little or no activity in this system [2].
  • Dose-response profiles of the croton oil-induced ear edema bioassay in rats were used to calculate the following ID50 values (nmol/ear resulting in a 50% reduction of edema): prednisolone (P), 540 nmol; 2b, 135 nmol; and 3b, 101 nmol [3].
  • Distribution of cefpirome (HR 810) to exudate in the croton oil-induced rat granuloma pouch and its therapeutic effects on experimental infections in the pouch [4].
  • In the setting of a chemical irritation with 2% croton oil and in an allergic dermatitis created with dinitrochlorobenzene sensitization and challenge, the triacontanol-containing preparation was significantly more effective than vehicle alone (DHL skin cream) but not as effective as 0.05% Diprolene ointment [5].

High impact information on Croton

  • Lack of correlation between skin reactivity to dinitrochlorobenzene and croton oil in patients with cancer [6].
  • Isoguanosine (oxyadenosine or crotonoside), previously known to occur in nature only in the croton bean, was isolated from an animal, the marine nudibranch mollusk Diaulula sandiegensis [7].
  • Painting of mouse skin with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene [(DMBA) CAS: 57-97-6], croton oil (CAS: 8001-28-3), or benzene (CAS: 71-43-2) had the same sensitizing effect as BP [8].
  • Primary tumors were induced and promoted concurrently in 35 uPA-/- deficient and 35 uPA+/+ wild-type mice using a single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by repetitive applications of croton oil [9].
  • We also found that 2 nonmelanoma tumors induced by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene + UV + croton oil contained an A----T transversion at Ha-ras codon 61 position 2, which is characteristic of most dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced tumors [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Croton


Biological context of Croton


Anatomical context of Croton


Associations of Croton with chemical compounds

  • The topical application of croton oil, benzo(a)pyrene, acetic acid, and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate to mouse skin caused an increase in the activity of epidermal low-affinity cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) phosphodiesterase [25].
  • Injection of the alpha-receptor antagonist phentolamine abolished a croton oil-induced rise in epidermal cyclic AMP levels and decreased the induction of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity [25].
  • However, the 2',3'-oxides of safrole, estragole, eugenol, 1'-hydroxysafrole, and 1'-hydroxyestragole, when administered topically to female CD-1 mice at relatively high doses, initiated benign skin tumors that could be promoted with croton oil [26].
  • The activity of cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase was also increased by treatment with croton oil or 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, but detailed time courses were not obtained [25].
  • The stimulation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity was less pronounced, reaching a peak of activity (6- to 7-fold greater than control) at 9 to 12 hr after TPA or croton oil and slowly declining to control level [27].

Gene context of Croton

  • In addition, responses to irritant chemicals (croton oil and phenol) were also impaired in CD28 -/- mice [28].
  • Both phenol and croton oil painting onto the ears induced less inflammation in TNFR1(-) mice than normal and TNFR2(-) mice [29].
  • Application of an irritant, croton oil, induced stronger and more sustained ear swelling in keratin 5/interleukin 18 transgenic mice than in immunoglobulin/interleukin 18 transgenic or wild-type mice [30].
  • 1. Chemokine expression and function was monitored in an experimental model of granulomatous tissue formation after injection of croton oil in complete Freund's adjuvant (CO/CFA) into mouse dorsal air-pouches up to 28 days [31].
  • No therapeutic effect was observed in immunodeficient RAG-1(-/-) mice, or when the contact sensitizer DNCB was replaced by skin irritants (croton oil or tributyltin) [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Croton


  1. Anti-inflammatory HDL becomes pro-inflammatory during the acute phase response. Loss of protective effect of HDL against LDL oxidation in aortic wall cell cocultures. Van Lenten, B.J., Hama, S.Y., de Beer, F.C., Stafforini, D.M., McIntyre, T.M., Prescott, S.M., La Du, B.N., Fogelman, A.M., Navab, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, and electrophilic reactivity of the stereoisomeric platinum(II) complexes of 1,2-diaminocyclohexane. Leopold, W.R., Batzinger, R.P., Miller, E.C., Miller, J.A., Earhart, R.H. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. New steroidal antiinflammatory antedrugs: steroidal [16 alpha,17 alpha-d]-3'-carbethoxyisoxazolines. Kwon, T., Heiman, A.S., Oriaku, E.T., Yoon, K., Lee, H.J. J. Med. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Distribution of cefpirome (HR 810) to exudate in the croton oil-induced rat granuloma pouch and its therapeutic effects on experimental infections in the pouch. Arai, S., Kobayashi, S., Hayashi, S., Sakaguchi, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of triacontanol-containing compounds as anti-inflammatory agents using guinea pig models. McBride, P.T., Clark, L., Krueger, G.G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Lack of correlation between skin reactivity to dinitrochlorobenzene and croton oil in patients with cancer. Roth, J.A., Eilber, F.R., Nizze, J.A., Morton, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Isoguanosine: isolation from an animal. Fuhrman, F.A., Fuhrman, G.J., Nachman, R.J., Mosher, H.S. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. Lymphocyte reactivity in normal and malignant cell proliferation against a phylogenetically conserved antigen in fetal extracts. Pasternak, G., Schlott, B., Gryschek, G., Albrecht, S., Reinhöfer, J., Matthes, E., von Broen, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient and wild-type mice: cellular blue nevi invade but do not progress to malignant melanoma in uPA-deficient animals. Shapiro, R.L., Duquette, J.G., Roses, D.F., Nunes, I., Harris, M.N., Kamino, H., Wilson, E.L., Rifkin, D.B. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. N-ras mutation in ultraviolet radiation-induced murine skin cancers. Pierceall, W.E., Kripke, M.L., Ananthaswamy, H.N. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Pentoxifylline suppresses irritant and contact hypersensitivity reactions. Schwarz, A., Krone, C., Trautinger, F., Aragane, Y., Neuner, P., Luger, T.A., Schwarz, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Chemical activation of innate and specific immunity in contact dermatitis. Zhang, L., Tinkle, S.S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparative efficacy of clindamycin, erythromycin and spiramycin against Staphylococcus aureus in the rat croton oil pouch model. Davey, P.G., Jacobus, N.V., Tally, F.P. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Low-dose dithranol treatment and tape stripping induce tolerance to dithranol in a mouse ear oedema model. Kemény, L., Farkas, A., Dobozy, A. Br. J. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Nonspecific inhibition of DNA repair synthesis by tumor promoters in human diploid fibroblasts damaged with N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene. Poirier, M.C., De Cicco, B.T., Lieberman, M.W. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Cannabinoid CB1-receptor mediated regulation of gastrointestinal motility in mice in a model of intestinal inflammation. Izzo, A.A., Fezza, F., Capasso, R., Bisogno, T., Pinto, L., Iuvone, T., Esposito, G., Mascolo, N., Di Marzo, V., Capasso, F. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Appearance and regression of rat pouch tissue. Zhang, J., Sun, Y., Zhang, J.Q., Ramires, F.J., Weber, K.T. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius decreases blood pressure through an action upon vascular smooth muscle: studies in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Lahlou, S., Leal-Cardoso, J.H., Magalhães, P.J. Planta Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. New steroidal anti-inflammatory antedrugs: methyl 3,20-dioxo-9 alpha-fluoro-11 beta,17 alpha,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-16 alpha-carboxylate and methyl 21-acetyloxy-3,20-dioxo-11 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha-fluoro-1,4-pregnadiene-16 alpha-carboxylate. Heiman, A.S., Ko, D.H., Chen, M., Lee, H.J. Steroids (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Radioimmunoassay for phorbol esters using rabbit antisera against phorbol succinate. Tashjian, A.H., Wolfson, G., Fearon, C.W. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Correlation between keratinocyte expression of Ia and the intensity and duration of contact hypersensitivity responses in mice. Roberts, L.K., Spangrude, G.J., Daynes, R.A., Krueger, G.G. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Cyclophosphamide-induced blood and tissue eosinophilia in contact sensitivity: mechanism of hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment into the skin. Satoh, T., Chen, Q.J., Sasaki, G., Yokozeki, H., Katayama, I., Nishioka, K. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Decreased number and function of antigen-presenting cells in the skin following application of irritant agents: relevance for skin cancer? Lisby, S., Baadsgaard, O., Cooper, K.D., Vejlsgaard, G.L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Cytokine induction in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to contact irritants and its relation to chemical-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Wilmer, J.L., Burleson, F.G., Kayama, F., Kanno, J., Luster, M.I. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Croton oil- and benzo(a)pyrene-induced changes in cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase activities in mouse epidermis. Verma, A.K., Froscio, M., Murray, A.W. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Structure-activity studies of the carcinogenicities in the mouse and rat of some naturally occurring and synthetic alkenylbenzene derivatives related to safrole and estragole. Miller, E.C., Swanson, A.B., Phillips, D.H., Fletcher, T.L., Liem, A., Miller, J.A. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Induction of the polyamine-biosynthetic enzymes in mouse epidermis by tumor-promoting agents. O'Brien, T.G., Simsiman, R.C., Boutwell, R.K. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Contribution of the CD28 molecule to allergic and irritant-induced skin reactions in CD28 -/- mice. Kondo, S., Kooshesh, F., Wang, B., Fujisawa, H., Sauder, D.N. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor type 1 (p55) is a main mediator for TNF-alpha-induced skin inflammation. Kondo, S., Sauder, D.N. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Exacerbated and prolonged allergic and non-allergic inflammatory cutaneous reaction in mice with targeted interleukin-18 expression in the skin. Kawase, Y., Hoshino, T., Yokota, K., Kuzuhara, A., Kirii, Y., Nishiwaki, E., Maeda, Y., Takeda, J., Okamoto, M., Kato, S., Imaizumi, T., Aizawa, H., Yoshino, K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Analysis of the temporal expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors during experimental granulomatous inflammation: role and expression of MIP-1alpha and MCP-1. Carollo, M., Hogaboam, C.M., Kunkel, S.L., Delaney, S., Christie, M.I., Perretti, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Chemoimmunotherapy for melanoma with dacarbazine and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene elicits a specific T cell-dependent immune response. Wack, C., Kirst, A., Becker, J.C., Lutz, W.K., Bröcker, E.B., Fischer, W.H. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Rabbits with elevated serum C-reactive protein exhibit diminished neutrophil infiltration and vascular permeability in C5a-induced alveolitis. Heuertz, R.M., Piquette, C.A., Webster, R.O. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Epidermal damage induced by irritants in man: a light and electron microscopic study. Willis, C.M., Stephens, C.J., Wilkinson, J.D. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Dissociation of alpha-macrofetoprotein and alpha-fetoprotein production during experimental injury. Hudig, D., Sell, S., Newell, L., Smuckler, E.A. Lab. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. Susceptibility to primary irritants: age dependence and relation to contact allergic reactions. Coenraads, P.J., Bleumink, E., Nater, J.P. Contact Derm. (1975) [Pubmed]
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