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MeSH Review

Body Size

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Disease relevance of Body Size


Psychiatry related information on Body Size


High impact information on Body Size

  • The infants were examined systematically for the presence of major malformations, signs of hypoplasia of the midface and fingers, microcephaly, and small body size [11].
  • Cyclin D1-deficient animals develop to term but show reduced body size, reduced viability, and symptoms of neurological impairment [12].
  • The required intravenous dose of cyclosporine (expressed as milligrams per day) increased steeply as body size and bowel length increased, whereas the required oral dose declined with increasing bowel length [13].
  • We propose that in mammals c-Myc controls the decision to divide or not to divide and thereby functions as a crucial mediator of signals that determine organ and body size [14].
  • Drosophila deficient in the S6 kinase gene (dS6K) exhibited an extreme delay in development and a severe reduction in body size [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Body Size


Biological context of Body Size


Anatomical context of Body Size


Associations of Body Size with chemical compounds

  • Here we present a new model of home range-body size scaling based on fractal resource distributions, in which resource encounter rates are a function of body size [6].
  • We conclude that body size and the deformity were the determinants of the lung volumes and the mechanical properties of the respiratory system, and that these variables were the major factors in both the magnitude and pattern of the ventilatory response to CO2 [31].
  • After adjusting for the effects of body size, M1 was also correlated and triglyceride [24].
  • Analyses of aba2/gin1 null mutants define dual functions of endogenous ABA in inhibiting the postgermination developmental switch modulated by distinct Glc and osmotic signals and in promoting organ and body size and fertility in the absence of severe stress [32].
  • Age, height, and CYP2C9 genotype significantly contributed to S-warfarin and total warfarin clearance, whereas only age and body size significantly contributed to R-warfarin clearance [33].

Gene context of Body Size

  • Interestingly, mice with a DNA-binding-deficient GR but an unaltered ability to interact with STAT5 (GR(dim/dim)) have a normal body size and normal levels of Stat5-dependent mRNAs [34].
  • The insulin-like growth factor I/insulin receptor substrate 1 axis controls, in a nonredundant way, approximately 50% of cell and body size in animals from Drosophila to mice and in cells in culture [35].
  • Our results demonstrate that dMnt is a transcriptional repressor that regulates D. melanogaster body size [36].
  • In addition, it is also required for body size determination and male tail patterning, roles which do not require daf-1 [37].
  • We propose that the sma-5 gene functions in a MAP kinase pathway to regulate body size mainly through control of cell growth [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Body Size

  • Carboplatin clearance (CL) values and volume of distribution (VC) were highly correlated to body size (CL = 55 x Body surface area in [BSA, in square meters] - 6.7, r2 = 0.73; VC = 5 x BSA [in square meters] + 0.26, r2 = 0.69) [39].
  • Size adjustment determined by using predefined indexes, such as BMD and body mass index (BMI, wt/ht2), may fail to correct BMC fully for bone and body size, and may lead to spurious associations with other size-related variables such as calcium intake, energy expenditure, and grip strength [40].
  • Fat free mass and height were found to be the best predictors of REE, and after accounting for these important body size and composition variables, differences in REE between boys and girls and CF and control groups increased over time [41].
  • Ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin are associated with body size in cross-sectional studies; it is unknown whether these hormones predict long-term changes in body size [42].
  • Real-time PCR analysis showed an age/body size dependent increase in gastric ghrelin, which stagnated at 7 cm body size (onset of maturation) [43].


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  2. Suprasternal notch echocardiography. Assessment of its clinical utility in pediatric cardiology. Allen, H.D., Goldberg, S.J., Sahn, D.J., Ovitt, T.W., Goldberg, B.B. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Transgenic mice with an expanded CAG repeat controlled by the human AR promoter show polyglutamine nuclear inclusions and neuronal dysfunction without neuronal cell death. Adachi, H., Kume, A., Li, M., Nakagomi, Y., Niwa, H., Do, J., Sang, C., Kobayashi, Y., Doyu, M., Sobue, G. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Osteoporosis in lung transplantation candidates with end-stage pulmonary disease. Shane, E., Silverberg, S.J., Donovan, D., Papadopoulos, A., Staron, R.B., Addesso, V., Jorgesen, B., McGregor, C., Schulman, L. Am. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Hydroxyproline peptides and bone mass in postmenopausal and osteoporotic women. Aloia, J.F., Cohn, S.H., Zanzi, I., Abesamis, C., Ellis, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
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  7. Low skeletal muscle mass is associated with poor structural parameters of bone and impaired balance in elderly men--the MINOS study. Szulc, P., Beck, T.J., Marchand, F., Delmas, P.D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Predictors of adipose tissue carotenoid and retinol levels in nine countries. The EURAMIC Study. Virtanen, S.M., van't Veer, P., Kok, F., Kardinaal, A.F., Aro, A. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Body awareness in anorexia nervosa: disturbances in "body image" and "satiety". Garfinkel, P.E., Moldofsky, H., Garner, D.M., Stancer, H.C., Coscina, D.V. Psychosomatic medicine. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Determinants of urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein in non-selected kidney stone formers and healthy subjects. Glauser, A., Hochreiter, W., Jaeger, P., Hess, B. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. The teratogenicity of anticonvulsant drugs. Holmes, L.B., Harvey, E.A., Coull, B.A., Huntington, K.B., Khoshbin, S., Hayes, A.M., Ryan, L.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Cyclin D1 provides a link between development and oncogenesis in the retina and breast. Sicinski, P., Donaher, J.L., Parker, S.B., Li, T., Fazeli, A., Gardner, H., Haslam, S.Z., Bronson, R.T., Elledge, S.J., Weinberg, R.A. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Small-bowel length and the dose of cyclosporine in children after liver transplantation. Whitington, P.F., Emond, J.C., Whitington, S.H., Broelsch, C.E., Baker, A.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. c-Myc regulates mammalian body size by controlling cell number but not cell size. Trumpp, A., Refaeli, Y., Oskarsson, T., Gasser, S., Murphy, M., Martin, G.R., Bishop, J.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Drosophila S6 kinase: a regulator of cell size. Montagne, J., Stewart, M.J., Stocker, H., Hafen, E., Kozma, S.C., Thomas, G. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Population correlates of plasma fibrinogen and factor VII, putative cardiovascular risk factors. Folsom, A.R., Wu, K.K., Davis, C.E., Conlan, M.G., Sorlie, P.D., Szklo, M. Atherosclerosis (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Ventilatory chemosensitivity in parents of infants with sudden infant death syndrome. Lewis, N.C., McBride, J.T., Brooks, J.G. J. Pediatr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Correlation of blood sex steroid hormones with body size, body fat distribution, and other known risk factors for breast cancer in post-menopausal Chinese women. Boyapati, S.M., Shu, X.O., Gao, Y.T., Dai, Q., Yu, H., Cheng, J.R., Jin, F., Zheng, W. Cancer Causes Control (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Decrease of circulating level of SHBG in postmenopausal obese women as a risk factor in breast cancer: reversible effect of weight loss. Enriori, C.L., Orsini, W., del Carmen Cremona, M., Etkin, A.E., Cardillo, L.R., Reforzo-Membrives, J. Gynecol. Oncol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Graft-rejection and toxicity following bone marrow transplantation in relation to busulfan pharmacokinetics. Slattery, J.T., Sanders, J.E., Buckner, C.D., Schaffer, R.L., Lambert, K.W., Langer, F.P., Anasetti, C., Bensinger, W.I., Fisher, L.D., Appelbaum, F.R. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. CATCH collaborative group. Luepker, R.V., Perry, C.L., McKinlay, S.M., Nader, P.R., Parcel, G.S., Stone, E.J., Webber, L.S., Elder, J.P., Feldman, H.A., Johnson, C.C. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and 24-hour macronutrient oxidation. Ferraro, R.T., Eckel, R.H., Larson, D.E., Fontvieille, A.M., Rising, R., Jensen, D.R., Ravussin, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. SOCS2 negatively regulates growth hormone action in vitro and in vivo. Greenhalgh, C.J., Rico-Bautista, E., Lorentzon, M., Thaus, A.L., Morgan, P.O., Willson, T.A., Zervoudakis, P., Metcalf, D., Street, I., Nicola, N.A., Nash, A.D., Fabri, L.J., Norstedt, G., Ohlsson, C., Flores-Morales, A., Alexander, W.S., Hilton, D.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Parameters of the three-pool model of the turnover of plasma cholesterol in normal and hyperlipidemic humans. Smith, F.R., Dell, R.B., Noble, R.P., Goodman, D.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. The gender-specific apolipoprotein E genotype influence on the distribution of plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in the population of Rochester, Minnesota. II. Regression relationships with concomitants. Reilly, S.L., Ferrell, R.E., Kottke, B.A., Sing, C.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of chemosensory receptor expression and sensory signaling by the KIN-29 Ser/Thr kinase. Lanjuin, A., Sengupta, P. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Impaired postnatal hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in mice lacking c-jun in the liver. Behrens, A., Sibilia, M., David, J.P., Möhle-Steinlein, U., Tronche, F., Schütz, G., Wagner, E.F. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Loss of myogenin in postnatal life leads to normal skeletal muscle but reduced body size. Knapp, J.R., Davie, J.K., Myer, A., Meadows, E., Olson, E.N., Klein, W.H. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Males have larger skeletal size and bone mass than females, despite comparable body size. Nieves, J.W., Formica, C., Ruffing, J., Zion, M., Garrett, P., Lindsay, R., Cosman, F. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Developmental and hormonal signals dramatically alter the localization and abundance of insulin receptor substrate proteins in the mammary gland. Lee, A.V., Zhang, P., Ivanova, M., Bonnette, S., Oesterreich, S., Rosen, J.M., Grimm, S., Hovey, R.C., Vonderhaar, B.K., Kahn, C.R., Torres, D., George, J., Mohsin, S., Allred, D.C., Hadsell, D.L. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Idiopathic scoliosis. Mechanical properties of the respiratory system and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. Kafer, E.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. A unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis glucose signaling and abscisic acid biosynthesis and functions. Cheng, W.H., Endo, A., Zhou, L., Penney, J., Chen, H.C., Arroyo, A., Leon, P., Nambara, E., Asami, T., Seo, M., Koshiba, T., Sheen, J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen. Sconce, E.A., Khan, T.I., Wynne, H.A., Avery, P., Monkhouse, L., King, B.P., Wood, P., Kesteven, P., Daly, A.K., Kamali, F. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Glucocorticoid receptor function in hepatocytes is essential to promote postnatal body growth. Tronche, F., Opherk, C., Moriggl, R., Kellendonk, C., Reimann, A., Schwake, L., Reichardt, H.M., Stangl, K., Gau, D., Hoeflich, A., Beug, H., Schmid, W., Schütz, G. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Control of cell size through phosphorylation of upstream binding factor 1 by nuclear phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Drakas, R., Tu, X., Baserga, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. The transcriptional repressor dMnt is a regulator of growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Loo, L.W., Secombe, J., Little, J.T., Carlos, L.S., Yost, C., Cheng, P.F., Flynn, E.M., Edgar, B.A., Eisenman, R.N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Specificity of TGFbeta signaling is conferred by distinct type I receptors and their associated SMAD proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. Krishna, S., Maduzia, L.L., Padgett, R.W. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Control of body size by SMA-5, a homolog of MAP kinase BMK1/ERK5, in C. elegans. Watanabe, N., Nagamatsu, Y., Gengyo-Ando, K., Mitani, S., Ohshima, Y. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. The pharmacokinetics of high-dose carboplatin in pediatric patients with cancer. Madden, T., Sunderland, M., Santana, V.M., Rodman, J.H. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. Uncritical use of bone mineral density in absorptiometry may lead to size-related artifacts in the identification of bone mineral determinants. Prentice, A., Parsons, T.J., Cole, T.J. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  41. Prospective evaluation of resting energy expenditure, nutritional status, pulmonary function, and genotype in children with cystic fibrosis. Zemel, B.S., Kawchak, D.A., Cnaan, A., Zhao, H., Scanlin, T.F., Stallings, V.A. Pediatr. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  42. Ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin do not predict long-term changes in weight and body mass index in older adults: longitudinal analysis of the Rancho Bernardo cohort. Langenberg, C., Bergstrom, J., Laughlin, G.A., Barrett-Connor, E. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  43. Ghrelin gene in cichlid fish is modulated by sex and development. Parhar, I.S., Sato, H., Sakuma, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
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