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MeSH Review

Chronic Disease

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Disease relevance of Chronic Disease


Psychiatry related information on Chronic Disease


High impact information on Chronic Disease

  • Methotrexate for chronic diseases in adults [11].
  • We studied 279 patients who were receiving daily therapy with 5 to 30 mg of prednisone or its equivalent to treat various chronic diseases, principally collagen vascular disorders, and 50 normal subjects [12].
  • The study patients in New Hampshire (n = 411) and a matched comparison cohort in New Jersey (n = 1375) were Medicaid recipients 60 years of age or older who in a base-line year had been taking three or more medications per month, including at least one maintenance drug for certain chronic diseases [13].
  • Treatment of chronic disease with 6-mercaptopurine: what effects on fertility [14]?
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is upregulated in acute, but not in chronic, MS lesions, and the effect on ameliorating EAE is more pronounced in the acute phase, in contrast to knocking out the immunoglobulin Fc receptor common gamma chain where the effect is greatest on chronic disease [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chronic Disease


Biological context of Chronic Disease


Anatomical context of Chronic Disease

  • Characteristics of a glutamine carrier in skeletal muscle have important consequences for nitrogen loss in injury, infection, and chronic disease [2].
  • Although all strains inoculated with the virus showed evidence of viral replication, those strains destined to develop chronic disease showed consistently higher titers of viral antigen in their sera and also in their tissues, particularly in the central nervous system, than did resistant strains [26].
  • We also have examined the results in relation to bone marrow iron status in an attempt to explain the reported difference between serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) values in anemia of chronic disease (ACD) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in patients with RA [27].
  • These results suggest that HLA-DR may be constitutively expressed in white matter, but induced in gray matter microglia in chronic disease states or in association with amyloid deposits [28].
  • We found evidence of constitutive activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in NK cells from 13/13 patients with NK-LDGL (one patient with aggressive and 12 patients with chronic disease) [29].

Gene context of Chronic Disease

  • To evaluate functions of VCAM-1 in chronic disease, we disrupted its fourth Ig domain, producing the murine Vcam1(D4D) allele [30].
  • In addition, the effects of these inflammatory cytokines on hypoxia-induced Epo production in vitro suggest that in various inflammatory disorders these cytokines may affect Epo production in vivo and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic disease [31].
  • Here, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of PPAR action and the involvement of the PPARs in the etiology and treatment of several chronic diseases [32].
  • By extension, COX-2 expression in brain has been associated with pro-inflammatory activities, thought to be instrumental in neurodegenerative processes of several acute and chronic diseases [33].
  • Also discussed are novel insights into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the abnormal RE iron metabolism characteristic of hereditary hemochromatosis and the anemia of chronic disease [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chronic Disease


  1. Interferon gamma regulates acute and latent murine cytomegalovirus infection and chronic disease of the great vessels. Presti, R.M., Pollock, J.L., Dal Canto, A.J., O'Guin, A.K., Virgin, H.W. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Characteristics of a glutamine carrier in skeletal muscle have important consequences for nitrogen loss in injury, infection, and chronic disease. Rennie, M.J., Hundal, H.S., Babij, P., MacLennan, P., Taylor, P.M., Watt, P.W., Jepson, M.M., Millward, D.J. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Transforming growth factor beta promotes development of fibrosis after repeated courses of acute pancreatitis in mice. Van Laethem, J.L., Robberecht, P., Résibois, A., Devière, J. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of HFE in iron metabolism, hereditary haemochromatosis, anaemia of chronic disease, and secondary iron overload. Townsend, A., Drakesmith, H. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Plasma cholesterol and depressive symptoms in older men. Morgan, R.E., Palinkas, L.A., Barrett-Connor, E.L., Wingard, D.L. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Psychological adjustment to IDDM: 10-year follow-up of an onset cohort of child and adolescent patients. Jacobson, A.M., Hauser, S.T., Willett, J.B., Wolfsdorf, J.I., Dvorak, R., Herman, L., de Groot, M. Diabetes Care (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Metabolic abnormalities (hypertension, hyperglycemia and overweight), lifestyle (high energy intake and physical inactivity) and endometrial cancer risk in a Norwegian cohort. Furberg, A.S., Thune, I. Int. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: implications for testosterone therapy. Makhsida, N., Shah, J., Yan, G., Fisch, H., Shabsigh, R. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Interictal mood and personality disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Perini, G.I., Tosin, C., Carraro, C., Bernasconi, G., Canevini, M.P., Canger, R., Pellegrini, A., Testa, G. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Measuring self-efficacy expectations for the self-management of cystic fibrosis. Bartholomew, L.K., Parcel, G.S., Swank, P.R., Czyzewski, D.I. Chest (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Methotrexate for chronic diseases in adults. Zonneveld, I.M., Bos, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy on pituitary-adrenal responses to exogenous corticotropin-releasing hormone. Schlaghecke, R., Kornely, E., Santen, R.T., Ridderskamp, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of Medicaid drug-payment limits on admission to hospitals and nursing homes. Soumerai, S.B., Ross-Degnan, D., Avorn, J., McLaughlin, T., Choodnovskiy, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of chronic disease with 6-mercaptopurine: what effects on fertility? Steckman, M.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Lock, C., Hermans, G., Pedotti, R., Brendolan, A., Schadt, E., Garren, H., Langer-Gould, A., Strober, S., Cannella, B., Allard, J., Klonowski, P., Austin, A., Lad, N., Kaminski, N., Galli, S.J., Oksenberg, J.R., Raine, C.S., Heller, R., Steinman, L. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuroleptic-induced decrease in plasma homovanillic acid and antipsychotic activity in schizophrenic patients. Pickar, D., Labarca, R., Linnoila, M., Roy, A., Hommer, D., Everett, D., Paul, S.M. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Epidemiology of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in the United States, 1995-1998: Opportunities for prevention in the conjugate vaccine era. Robinson, K.A., Baughman, W., Rothrock, G., Barrett, N.L., Pass, M., Lexau, C., Damaske, B., Stefonek, K., Barnes, B., Patterson, J., Zell, E.R., Schuchat, A., Whitney, C.G. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Reversibility of T helper 1 and 2 populations is lost after long-term stimulation. Murphy, E., Shibuya, K., Hosken, N., Openshaw, P., Maino, V., Davis, K., Murphy, K., O'Garra, A. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Neoplasia and chronic disease associated with the prolonged administration of dehydroheliotridine to rats. Peterson, J.E., Jago, M.V., Reddy, J.K., Jarrett, R.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential interactions of heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans with the selectins. Implications for the use of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins as therapeutic agents. Koenig, A., Norgard-Sumnicht, K., Linhardt, R., Varki, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Inhibition of experimental liver cirrhosis in mice by telomerase gene delivery. Rudolph, K.L., Chang, S., Millard, M., Schreiber-Agus, N., DePinho, R.A. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Vitamin E: function and metabolism. Brigelius-Flohé, R., Traber, M.G. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Gamma delta T cells regulate the extent and duration of inflammation in the central nervous system by a Fas ligand-dependent mechanism. Ponomarev, E.D., Dittel, B.N. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Blunted erythropoietin production and defective iron supply for erythropoiesis as major causes of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure. Opasich, C., Cazzola, M., Scelsi, L., De Feo, S., Bosimini, E., Lagioia, R., Febo, O., Ferrari, R., Fucili, A., Moratti, R., Tramarin, R., Tavazzi, L. Eur. Heart J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. The interrelationship of thyroid hormones with vitamin A and zinc nutritional status in patients with chronic hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. Morley, J.E., Russell, R.M., Reed, A., Carney, E.A., Hershman, J.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Pathogenesis of the slow disease of the central nervous system associated with WM 1504 E virus. I. Relationship of strain susceptibility and replication to disease. Oldstone, M.B., Lampert, P.W., Lee, S., Dixon, F.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  27. Erythroblast iron metabolism and serum soluble transferrin receptor values in the anemia of rheumatoid arthritis. Fitzsimons, E.J., Houston, T., Munro, R., Sturrock, R.D., Speekenbrink, A.B., Brock, J.H. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Detection of HLA-DR on microglia in the human brain is a function of both clinical and technical factors. Mattiace, L.A., Davies, P., Dickson, D.W. Am. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. ERK couples chronic survival of NK cells to constitutively activated Ras in lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes (LDGL). Epling-Burnette, P.K., Bai, F., Wei, S., Chaurasia, P., Painter, J.S., Olashaw, N., Hamilton, A., Sebti, S., Djeu, J.Y., Loughran, T.P. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. A major role for VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, in early atherosclerosis. Cybulsky, M.I., Iiyama, K., Li, H., Zhu, S., Chen, M., Iiyama, M., Davis, V., Gutierrez-Ramos, J.C., Connelly, P.W., Milstone, D.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of inflammatory cytokines on hypoxia-induced erythropoietin production. Faquin, W.C., Schneider, T.J., Goldberg, M.A. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. The mechanisms of action of PPARs. Berger, J., Moller, D.E. Annu. Rev. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in inflammatory and degenerative brain diseases. Minghetti, L. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Iron metabolism in the reticuloendothelial system. Knutson, M., Wessling-Resnick, M. Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Indirubin, the active constituent of a Chinese antileukaemia medicine, inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases. Hoessel, R., Leclerc, S., Endicott, J.A., Nobel, M.E., Lawrie, A., Tunnah, P., Leost, M., Damiens, E., Marie, D., Marko, D., Niederberger, E., Tang, W., Eisenbrand, G., Meijer, L. Nat. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Oral administration of K-11706 inhibits GATA binding activity, enhances hypoxia-inducible factor 1 binding activity, and restores indicators in an in vivo mouse model of anemia of chronic disease. Nakano, Y., Imagawa, S., Matsumoto, K., Stockmann, C., Obara, N., Suzuki, N., Doi, T., Kodama, T., Takahashi, S., Nagasawa, T., Yamamoto, M. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. The effects of vitamin C supplementation on serum concentrations of uric acid: results of a randomized controlled trial. Huang, H.Y., Appel, L.J., Choi, M.J., Gelber, A.C., Charleston, J., Norkus, E.P., Miller, E.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Prolonged effects of a home-based intervention in patients with chronic illness. Pearson, S., Inglis, S.C., McLennan, S.N., Brennan, L., Russell, M., Wilkinson, D., Thompson, D.R., Stewart, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Epilepsy in pregnancy: developmental outcome of offspring at 12 months. Leavitt, A.M., Yerby, M.S., Robinson, N., Sells, C.J., Erickson, D.M. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
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