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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Bipolar Disorder

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Disease relevance of Bipolar Disorder


Psychiatry related information on Bipolar Disorder


High impact information on Bipolar Disorder


Chemical compound and disease context of Bipolar Disorder


Biological context of Bipolar Disorder

  • We evaluated the immunoreactivity of the regulatory and catalytic subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) and 1 of its substrates, Rap1, in platelets from untreated euthymic, manic, and depressed patients with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects [21].
  • This finding suggests that natural variations in GR gene expression can contribute to the fine-tuning of emotional stability or lability and may play a role in bipolar disorder [22].
  • Mutation analysis of SYNJ1: a possible candidate gene for chromosome 21q22-linked bipolar disorder [23].
  • Two of the eight new SNPs, one in intron 8 and one in intron 13, were found to be moderately associated with bipolar disorder, each in one of the two independent samples [24].
  • METHOD: The prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype was defined as current DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed phase) with at least one cardinal mania criterion (i.e., euphoria and/or grandiosity) to ensure differentiation from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [25].

Anatomical context of Bipolar Disorder


Gene context of Bipolar Disorder

  • Here we performed a biochemical analysis of DISC1 protein in a well characterized set of autopsied brains, including brains of patients with SZ, bipolar disorder, and major depression (MD), as well as normal control brains [31].
  • Recent biochemical data, however, indicate that CB also has characteristics of a Ca(2+) sensor and activates myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a key enzyme of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling cascade and an assumed target of mood-stabilizing drugs in the treatment of bipolar disorder [32].
  • RESULTS: Relative to the comparison subjects, subjects with bipolar disorder without panic disorder, but not those with comorbid bipolar disorder and panic disorder, showed significantly higher frequencies of the COMT Met158 and the short 5-HTTLPR alleles and genotypes [33].
  • Family-based association study of 76 candidate genes in bipolar disorder: BDNF is a potential risk locus. Brain-derived neutrophic factor [34].
  • Together, these data are consistent with the presence of multiple variants in DAT1 that convey susceptibility to bipolar disorder [24].
  • Growth factor gene cascades in Bipolar disorder [35]
  • Oligodendrocytes and genes in Bipolar disorder [36]
  • Genes   and environmental risk factors   implicated in Bipolar disorder

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bipolar Disorder


  1. Amantadine and human Borna disease virus in vitro and in vivo in an infected patient with bipolar depression. Bode, L., Dietrich, D.E., Stoyloff, R., Emrich, H.M., Ludwig, H. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Family study of fibromyalgia. Arnold, L.M., Hudson, J.I., Hess, E.V., Ware, A.E., Fritz, D.A., Auchenbach, M.B., Starck, L.O., Keck, P.E. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Mapping cortical change in Alzheimer's disease, brain development, and schizophrenia. Thompson, P.M., Hayashi, K.M., Sowell, E.R., Gogtay, N., Giedd, J.N., Rapoport, J.L., de Zubicaray, G.I., Janke, A.L., Rose, S.E., Semple, J., Doddrell, D.M., Wang, Y., van Erp, T.G., Cannon, T.D., Toga, A.W. Neuroimage (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Lithium-discontinuation-induced refractoriness: preliminary observations. Post, R.M., Leverich, G.S., Altshuler, L., Mikalauskas, K. The American journal of psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Disease-specific alterations in frontal cortex brain proteins in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. The Stanley Neuropathology Consortium. Johnston-Wilson, N.L., Sims, C.D., Hofmann, J.P., Anderson, L., Shore, A.D., Torrey, E.F., Yolken, R.H. Mol. Psychiatry (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. In vivo D2 dopamine receptor density in psychotic and nonpsychotic patients with bipolar disorder. Pearlson, G.D., Wong, D.F., Tune, L.E., Ross, C.A., Chase, G.A., Links, J.M., Dannals, R.F., Wilson, A.A., Ravert, H.T., Wagner, H.N. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Reduction of prefrontal cortex glucose metabolism common to three types of depression. Baxter, L.R., Schwartz, J.M., Phelps, M.E., Mazziotta, J.C., Guze, B.H., Selin, C.E., Gerner, R.H., Sumida, R.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1): association with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder. Hodgkinson, C.A., Goldman, D., Jaeger, J., Persaud, S., Kane, J.M., Lipsky, R.H., Malhotra, A.K. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Lithium erythrocyte/plasma ratio as a predictor of response. Flemenbaum, A., Weddige, R., Miller, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid disorders: issues of overlapping symptoms. Milberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Murphy, J., Tsuang, M.T. The American journal of psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Genetic mapping using haplotype, association and linkage methods suggests a locus for severe bipolar disorder (BPI) at 18q22-q23. Freimer, N.B., Reus, V.I., Escamilla, M.A., McInnes, L.A., Spesny, M., Leon, P., Service, S.K., Smith, L.B., Silva, S., Rojas, E., Gallegos, A., Meza, L., Fournier, E., Baharloo, S., Blankenship, K., Tyler, D.J., Batki, S., Vinogradov, S., Weissenbach, J., Barondes, S.H., Sandkuijl, L.A. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Serum lithium during treatment of bipolar disorder. Swartz, C.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Inositol monophosphatase--a putative target for Li+ in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Atack, J.R., Broughton, H.B., Pollack, S.J. Trends Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of gene expression by lithium and depletion of inositol in slices of adult rat cortex. Brandish, P.E., Su, M., Holder, D.J., Hodor, P., Szumiloski, J., Kleinhanz, R.R., Forbes, J.E., McWhorter, M.E., Duenwald, S.J., Parrish, M.L., Na, S., Liu, Y., Phillips, R.L., Renger, J.J., Sankaranarayanan, S., Simon, A.J., Scolnick, E.M. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Thyrotropin-releasing-hormone test in unipolar and bipolar depression. Bjørum, N., Kirkegaard, C. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Bipolar affective psychosis after vigabatrin. Naumann, M., Supprian, T., Kornhuber, J., Lange, K.W., Reiners, K. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Reduction of vanadate, a possible explanation of the effect of phenothiazines in manic-depressive psychosis. Naylor, G.G., Smith, A.H. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Efficacy of valproate maintenance in patients with bipolar disorder and alcoholism: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Salloum, I.M., Cornelius, J.R., Daley, D.C., Kirisci, L., Himmelhoch, J.M., Thase, M.E. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar I disorder. Bowden, C.L., Calabrese, J.R., Sachs, G., Yatham, L.N., Asghar, S.A., Hompland, M., Montgomery, P., Earl, N., Smoot, T.M., DeVeaugh-Geiss, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Neurobiological evidence for thalamic, hippocampal and related glutamatergic abnormalities in bipolar disorder: a review and synthesis. Ng, W.X., Lau, I.Y., Graham, S., Sim, K. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev (2009) [Pubmed]
  21. Abnormalities of cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling in platelets from untreated patients with bipolar disorder. Perez, J., Tardito, D., Mori, S., Racagni, G., Smeraldi, E., Zanardi, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Glucocorticoid receptor overexpression in forebrain: a mouse model of increased emotional lability. Wei, Q., Lu, X.Y., Liu, L., Schafer, G., Shieh, K.R., Burke, S., Robinson, T.E., Watson, S.J., Seasholtz, A.F., Akil, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Mutation analysis of SYNJ1: a possible candidate gene for chromosome 21q22-linked bipolar disorder. Saito, T., Guan, F., Papolos, D.F., Lau, S., Klein, M., Fann, C.S., Lachman, H.M. Mol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of additional variants within the human dopamine transporter gene provides further evidence for an association with bipolar disorder in two independent samples. Greenwood, T.A., Schork, N.J., Eskin, E., Kelsoe, J.R. Mol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Linkage disequilibrium of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Geller, B., Badner, J.A., Tillman, R., Christian, S.L., Bolhofner, K., Cook, E.H. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Density of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA-containing neurons that express the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Woo, T.U., Walsh, J.P., Benes, F.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Association between lower serum free T4 and greater mood instability and depression in lithium-maintained bipolar patients. Frye, M.A., Denicoff, K.D., Bryan, A.L., Smith-Jackson, E.E., Ali, S.O., Luckenbaugh, D., Leverich, G.S., Post, R.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Reduction of synapsin in the hippocampus of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Vawter, M.P., Thatcher, L., Usen, N., Hyde, T.M., Kleinman, J.E., Freed, W.J. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a review of neuroimaging findings. Strakowski, S.M., Delbello, M.P., Adler, C.M. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Inositol monophosphatase in immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines indicates susceptibility to bipolar disorder and response to lithium therapy. Shamir, A., Ebstein, R.P., Nemanov, L., Zohar, A., Belmaker, R.H., Agam, G. Mol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. A form of DISC1 enriched in nucleus: altered subcellular distribution in orbitofrontal cortex in psychosis and substance/alcohol abuse. Sawamura, N., Sawamura-Yamamoto, T., Ozeki, Y., Ross, C.A., Sawa, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Calbindin D28k targets myo-inositol monophosphatase in spines and dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Schmidt, H., Schwaller, B., Eilers, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Catechol o-methyltransferase, serotonin transporter, and tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphisms in bipolar disorder patients with and without comorbid panic disorder. Rotondo, A., Mazzanti, C., Dell'Osso, L., Rucci, P., Sullivan, P., Bouanani, S., Gonnelli, C., Goldman, D., Cassano, G.B. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Family-based association study of 76 candidate genes in bipolar disorder: BDNF is a potential risk locus. Brain-derived neutrophic factor. Sklar, P., Gabriel, S.B., McInnis, M.G., Bennett, P., Lim, Y.M., Tsan, G., Schaffner, S., Kirov, G., Jones, I., Owen, M., Craddock, N., DePaulo, J.R., Lander, E.S. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Multiple genes and factors associated with bipolar disorder converge on growth factor and stress activated kinase pathways controlling translation initiation: implications for oligodendrocyte viability. Carter, C.J. Neurochem. Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  36. eIF2B and oligodendrocyte survival: where nature and nurture meet in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia?. Carter, C.J. Schizophr. Bull. (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. Long-term lithium therapy for bipolar disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Geddes, J.R., Burgess, S., Hawton, K., Jamison, K., Goodwin, G.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Alterations of hippocampal secreted N-CAM in bipolar disorder and synaptophysin in schizophrenia. Vawter, M.P., Howard, A.L., Hyde, T.M., Kleinman, J.E., Freed, W.J. Mol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Treatment of imipramine-resistant recurrent depression, IV: A double-blind crossover study of tranylcypromine for anergic bipolar depression. Thase, M.E., Mallinger, A.G., McKnight, D., Himmelhoch, J.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  40. The internal struggle between the wish to die and the wish to live: a risk factor for suicide. Brown, G.K., Steer, R.A., Henriques, G.R., Beck, A.T. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
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