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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

In Vitro

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Disease relevance of In Vitro


Psychiatry related information on In Vitro


High impact information on In Vitro

  • In this review we discuss some of the chemokines' biological effects in vivo and in vitro, described in the last few years, and the implications of these findings when considering chemokine receptors as therapeutic targets [11].
  • However, the molecular details as to how FcRn traffics within cells have yet to be fully understood, although in vitro systems have been developed for this purpose [12].
  • In addition to its potential role as a mediator of intercellular interactions, signal transduction through CD22 can activate B cells and modulate antigen receptor signaling in vitro [13].
  • Non-MHC Ir genes also contribute to the control of in vitro CTL responses to H-Y [14].
  • In vitro and biochemical experiments have implicated tyrosine kinases as key components of many of these signaling pathways [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of In Vitro


Biological context of In Vitro

  • In any event, the vastly different properties of the Eco SSB-binding modes must be considered in studies of DNA replication, recombination, and repair in vitro [21].
  • Substrates for telomerase are single-stranded oligonucleotides in vitro and chromosome ends in vivo [22].
  • Here we report the in vitro and in vivo consequences of converting these sites to alanine residues, which eliminates phosphorylation at these positions, or to aspartate residues, which mimics the negative charge state of the phosphorylated molecule [23].
  • For this function, p66Shc utilizes reducing equivalents of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain through the oxidation of cytochrome c. Redox-defective mutants of p66Shc are unable to induce mitochondrial ROS generation and swelling in vitro or to mediate mitochondrial apoptosis in vivo [24].
  • We demonstrate that So and Eya (1) regulate common steps in eye development including cell proliferation, patterning, and neuronal development; (2) synergize in inducing ectopic eyes; and (3) interact in yeast and in vitro through evolutionarily conserved domains [25].

Anatomical context of In Vitro


Associations of In Vitro with chemical compounds

  • The influence of thyroid hormone on estrogen actions has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro [31].
  • Oxysterols are variously metabolized to esters, bile acids, steroid hormones, cholesterol, or other sterols through pathways that may differ according to the type of cell and mode of experimentation (in vitro, in vivo, cell culture) [32].
  • The effects of caffeine and anesthetic agents on MHS and normal muscle are also discussed to better understand the basis for the in vitro clinical test for this disorder and mechanisms responsible for the initiation and maintenance of MH episodes in susceptible individuals [33].
  • They also block tubuloglomerular feedback responses in vivo and the vasoconstrictor response to elevations in tissue PO(2) both in vivo and in vitro [34].
  • Cells isolated from tumors formed at nonpermissive temperatures and recultured in vitro displayed temperature-dependent hexose transport and colony formation in agar similar to the orginal parent cell inoculum [35].

Gene context of In Vitro


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of In Vitro


  1. Organochlorines and breast cancer risk. Calle, E.E., Frumkin, H., Henley, S.J., Savitz, D.A., Thun, M.J. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Jun-Fos and receptors for vitamins A and D recognize a common response element in the human osteocalcin gene. Schüle, R., Umesono, K., Mangelsdorf, D.J., Bolado, J., Pike, J.W., Evans, R.M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. HIV-1 Rev regulation involves recognition of non-Watson-Crick base pairs in viral RNA. Bartel, D.P., Zapp, M.L., Green, M.R., Szostak, J.W. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein binds to cyclophilins A and B. Luban, J., Bossolt, K.L., Franke, E.K., Kalpana, G.V., Goff, S.P. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The U1 small nuclear RNA-protein complex selectively binds a 5' splice site in vitro. Mount, S.M., Pettersson, I., Hinterberger, M., Karmas, A., Steitz, J.A. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Developmental and activity-dependent regulation of kainate receptors at thalamocortical synapses. Kidd, F.L., Isaac, J.T. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular assessment of the potential transmissibilities of BSE and scrapie to humans. Raymond, G.J., Hope, J., Kocisko, D.A., Priola, S.A., Raymond, L.D., Bossers, A., Ironside, J., Will, R.G., Chen, S.G., Petersen, R.B., Gambetti, P., Rubenstein, R., Smits, M.A., Lansbury, P.T., Caughey, B. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Activation in vitro of sequence-specific DNA binding by a human regulatory factor. Larson, J.S., Schuetz, T.J., Kingston, R.E. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in tangle-bearing neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Vodovotz, Y., Lucia, M.S., Flanders, K.C., Chesler, L., Xie, Q.W., Smith, T.W., Weidner, J., Mumford, R., Webber, R., Nathan, C., Roberts, A.B., Lippa, C.F., Sporn, M.B. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Lithium ion transport and affective disorders within families of bipolar patients. Identification of a major gene locus. Dorus, E., Cox, N.J., Gibbons, R.D., Shaughnessy, R., Pandey, G.N., Cloninger, C.R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. The biology of chemokines and their receptors. Rossi, D., Zlotnik, A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Multiple roles for the major histocompatibility complex class I- related receptor FcRn. Ghetie, V., Ward, E.S. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. CD22, a B lymphocyte-specific adhesion molecule that regulates antigen receptor signaling. Tedder, T.F., Tuscano, J., Sato, S., Kehrl, J.H. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. The male-specific histocompatibility antigen, H-Y: a history of transplantation, immune response genes, sex determination and expression cloning. Simpson, E., Scott, D., Chandler, P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic analysis of tyrosine kinase function in B cell development. Satterthwaite, A., Witte, O. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Familial hyperinsulinemia due to a structurally abnormal insulin. Definition of an emerging new clinical syndrome. Haneda, M., Polonsky, K.S., Bergenstal, R.M., Jaspan, J.B., Shoelson, S.E., Blix, P.M., Chan, S.J., Kwok, S.C., Wishner, W.B., Zeidler, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Spontaneous release of histamine from basophils and histamine-releasing factor in patients with atopic dermatitis and food hypersensitivity. Sampson, H.A., Broadbent, K.R., Bernhisel-Broadbent, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. A controlled trial comparing foscarnet with vidarabine for acyclovir-resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Safrin, S., Crumpacker, C., Chatis, P., Davis, R., Hafner, R., Rush, J., Kessler, H.A., Landry, B., Mills, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Recognition of gonadotroph adenomas in women. Daneshdoost, L., Gennarelli, T.A., Bashey, H.M., Savino, P.J., Sergott, R.C., Bosley, T.M., Snyder, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Inhibition by cortisol of the effect of gluten protein in vitro. Katz, A.J., Falchuk, Z.M., Strober, W., Shwachman, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein: multiple DNA-binding modes and cooperativities. Lohman, T.M., Ferrari, M.E. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Ciliate telomerase biochemistry. Collins, K. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Dictyostelium myosin heavy chain phosphorylation sites regulate myosin filament assembly and localization in vivo. Egelhoff, T.T., Lee, R.J., Spudich, J.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Electron transfer between cytochrome c and p66Shc generates reactive oxygen species that trigger mitochondrial apoptosis. Giorgio, M., Migliaccio, E., Orsini, F., Paolucci, D., Moroni, M., Contursi, C., Pelliccia, G., Luzi, L., Minucci, S., Marcaccio, M., Pinton, P., Rizzuto, R., Bernardi, P., Paolucci, F., Pelicci, P.G. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. The eye-specification proteins So and Eya form a complex and regulate multiple steps in Drosophila eye development. Pignoni, F., Hu, B., Zavitz, K.H., Xiao, J., Garrity, P.A., Zipursky, S.L. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. IgE-binding factors and regulation of the IgE antibody response. Ishizaka, K. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Transcripts regulated during normal embryonic development and oncogenic transformation share a repetitive element. Murphy, D., Brickell, P.M., Latchman, D.S., Willison, K., Rigby, P.W. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Methyldopa inhibition of suppressor-lymphocyte function: a proposed cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Kirtland, H.H., Mohler, D.N., Horwitz, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Vascular endothelial growth factor in ocular fluid of patients with diabetic retinopathy and other retinal disorders. Aiello, L.P., Avery, R.L., Arrigg, P.G., Keyt, B.A., Jampel, H.D., Shah, S.T., Pasquale, L.R., Thieme, H., Iwamoto, M.A., Park, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Why the rat-1 fibroblast should replace the SCN as the in vitro model of choice. Rosbash, M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Estrogen and thyroid hormone receptor interactions: physiological flexibility by molecular specificity. Vasudevan, N., Ogawa, S., Pfaff, D. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Oxysterols: modulators of cholesterol metabolism and other processes. Schroepfer, G.J. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Malignant hyperthermia: excitation-contraction coupling, Ca2+ release channel, and cell Ca2+ regulation defects. Mickelson, J.R., Louis, C.F. Physiol. Rev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid in the control of cardiovascular function. Roman, R.J. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Cells transformed by temperature-sensitive mutants of avian sarcoma virus cause tumors in vivo at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Poste, G., Flood, M.K. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. The role of the CD28 receptor during T cell responses to antigen. Linsley, P.S., Ledbetter, J.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Phospholipase D: enzymology, mechanisms of regulation, and function. Exton, J.H. Physiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Rescue of embryonic lethality in Mdm4-null mice by loss of Trp53 suggests a nonoverlapping pathway with MDM2 to regulate p53. Parant, J., Chavez-Reyes, A., Little, N.A., Yan, W., Reinke, V., Jochemsen, A.G., Lozano, G. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Expression of the gene for multidrug-resistance-associated protein and outcome in patients with neuroblastoma. Norris, M.D., Bordow, S.B., Marshall, G.M., Haber, P.S., Cohn, S.L., Haber, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Phospholipase C-gamma is a substrate for the PDGF and EGF receptor protein-tyrosine kinases in vivo and in vitro. Meisenhelder, J., Suh, P.G., Rhee, S.G., Hunter, T. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Elevated dihydrofolate reductase messenger RNA levels in methotrexate-resistant BHK cells. Chang, S.E., Littlefield, J.W. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  42. A TRF1:BRF complex directs Drosophila RNA polymerase III transcription. Takada, S., Lis, J.T., Zhou, S., Tjian, R. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. Endres, S., Ghorbani, R., Kelley, V.E., Georgilis, K., Lonnemann, G., van der Meer, J.W., Cannon, J.G., Rogers, T.S., Klempner, M.S., Weber, P.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  44. DNA binding activities of three murine Jun proteins: stimulation by Fos. Nakabeppu, Y., Ryder, K., Nathans, D. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  45. The araC promoter: transcription, mapping and interaction with the araBAD promoter. Hirsh, J., Schleif, R. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
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