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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Self Concept

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Disease relevance of Self Concept

  • Overall, these results support the view that dental-facial esthetics and self-perceptions of occlusal appearance, as well as attitudes toward malocclusion and orthodontic treatment, are important factors in the individual's decision to obtain orthodontic treatment [1].
  • RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Obese adolescents [N = 61; age, 14.1 (+/-0.2) years; BMI, 33.9 (+/-0.7) kg/m(2)] completed assessments of body weight and height and self-esteem and a sentence-completion test eliciting thoughts and beliefs about exercise, eating, and appearance at the start and end of the camp (mean stay, 26 days) [2].
  • Vitiligo patients exhibited better adjustment to their disorder and experienced less social discrimination than did psoriasis patients, although the two groups did not differ on overall self-esteem [3].
  • The 79 female and 147 male patients constituting the population with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged 16 years and older attending The Hospital for Sick Children were asked to complete the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) and Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS); 64 female (81%) and 112 male (76%) subjects participated [4].
  • The body of literature on bulimia nervosa (Boskind-Lodahl and Sirlin 1977; Fairburn and Cooper 1984; Katzman and Wolchik 1984; Scott 1988) clearly establishes its relationship to the current American fashion for thinness and the value placed on physical attractiveness for self-esteem [5].

Psychiatry related information on Self Concept

  • Recently, variations in self-esteem and internal locus of control have been shown to predict the neuroendocrine cortisol response to stress [6].
  • Measurements assessing teasing history (general appearance [GAT] and weight and size [WST] teasing), current eating disorder psychopathology (binge frequency, eating restraint, and concerns regarding eating, shape, and weight), body dissatisfaction, and psychological functioning (depression and self-esteem) were obtained [7].
  • METHOD: In a school district-wide sample of children in special education programs, the authors assessed self-esteem with the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale among 143 students at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the school year 1995, with an interview participation rate of 73% [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The direct association between parental affective disorders and MDD onset was not affected by family cohesion, self-esteem, or stressful life events; thus more research is needed on other factors that may affect this association, such as genetic factors or other family- and intrapersonal-based variables [9].
  • The study examined the self-esteem, life fulfillments, social and interpersonal difficulties, general physical health, worries, and happiness of 392 adults with epilepsy using various psychometric instruments [10].

High impact information on Self Concept

  • We obtained psychiatric (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) and personality data on neuroticism, depressive coping style, self-esteem, and mastery from 4796 respondents at 3 time points (T1, T2, and T3), 12 and 24 months apart [11].
  • We therefore examined hippocampal volume and cortisol regulation, to investigate potential biological mechanisms related to self-esteem [6].
  • Physical self perceptions of women with rheumatoid arthritis [12].
  • Self perception in bacteria: quorum sensing with acylated homoserine lactones [13].
  • The self-perception of PFL was more frequent among older patients, patients who used stavudine for longer periods, and patients who reported a lack of adherence to antiretroviral agents [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Self Concept

  • Level of CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was lowest in parkinsonian patients with major depression and was related to psychomotor retardation and loss of self-esteem [15].
  • Thus, we found improved self-concept both by self- and parental report in estrogen-treated girls with TS followed longitudinally through adolescence [16].
  • The 400 mg modafinil group had more energy, fewer difficulties performing usual activities, fewer interferences with social activities, improved psychological well-being and higher productivity, attention and self-esteem compared to placebo subjects (p<.05) [17].
  • Reboxetine demonstrated superior efficacy compared with fluoxetine in severely ill patients and was associated with greater improvement in social functioning, especially in terms of motivation toward action and negative self-perception [18].
  • The children completed the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Children's Depression Inventory [19].

Biological context of Self Concept

  • Patients (n = 321) on geriatrics wards were asked to complete two or three of four well-being measures: the Geriatric Depression Scale, Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, Southampton Self-esteem Scale and the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale [20].
  • Compared to HIV-positive homosexuals, drug users had higher (t = 2.88 and p < 0.01) and non-drug users had similar SCL scores (n.s.). Psychosocial illness burden (SCL and Rand psychosocial dimension) was associated with low self-esteem, poverty, ethnic minority membership and illness stage (Rand only) [21].
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a traditional weight control program and nondiet alternative in improving behavioral (e.g., restrained, emotional, and external eating), psychological (e.g., body preoccupation, physical self-esteem), and biomedical (e.g., body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol) outcomes [22].
  • Men scoring high on sexual compulsivity reported engaging in more frequent unprotected sexual acts with more partners, reported greater use of cocaine in conjunction with sexual activity, rated high-risk sexual acts as more pleasurable, and reported lower self-esteem [23].
  • Multiple instruments were employed including Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Tucker's Perceived Somatotype Scale, the Physical Performance Test for California, and a written questionnaire to generate multidimensional profiles of 394 high school males [24].

Anatomical context of Self Concept

  • We report on 2 cases of the effect of modafinil on the self-esteem of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) [25].
  • The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) is a multidimensional, physical self-concept instrument designed to measure 11 scales: Strength, Body Fat, Activity, Endurance/Fitness, Sports Competence, Coordination, Health, Appearance, Flexibility, Global Physical Self-concept, and Global Esteem [26].
  • Unemployment increased the odds for negative self-concept among survivors who received combinations of central nervous system (CNS) irradiation (CRT) and intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), except high CRT with no or low dose IT-MTX [27].

Gene context of Self Concept

  • Depression and low self-esteem in wave 1 were found to precede the headaches in wave 2 in girls, but not in boys [28].
  • The relation between T1 self-esteem and T2 internalizing symptoms was significant, controlling for T1 internalizing symptoms [29].
  • The literature clearly documents that stimulants not only improve abnormal behaviors of ADHD, but also self-esteem, cognition, and social and family function [30].
  • Inpatients (N=162) affected by bipolar (n=103) and unipolar (n=59) disorder (DSM III-R) were assessed by the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Rosenberg, 1965) and were typed for DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR (n=58 subjects) variants at the third exon using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques [31].
  • One such variable is global physical self-concept (GPSC) [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Self Concept


  1. Variables discriminating individuals who seek orthodontic treatment. Albino, J.E., Cunat, J.J., Fox, R.N., Lewis, E.A., Slakter, M.J., Tedesco, L.A. J. Dent. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Cognitive change in obese adolescents losing weight. Barton, S.B., Walker, L.L., Lambert, G., Gately, P.J., Hill, A.J. Obes. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Psychosocial effect of vitiligo: a comparison of vitiligo patients with "normal" control subjects, with psoriasis patients, and with patients with other pigmentary disorders. Porter, J.R., Beuf, A.H., Lerner, A., Nordlund, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Growing older with cystic fibrosis: psychologic adjustment of patients more than 16 years old. Cowen, L., Corey, M., Simmons, R., Keenan, N., Robertson, J., Levison, H. Psychosomatic medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Psychological and behavioral differences among females classified as bulimic, obligatory exerciser and normal control. Krejci, R.C., Sargent, R., Forand, K.J., Ureda, J.R., Saunders, R.P., Durstine, J.L. Psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. Pruessner, J.C., Baldwin, M.W., Dedovic, K., Renwick, R., Mahani, N.K., Lord, C., Meaney, M., Lupien, S. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Teasing history, onset of obesity, current eating disorder psychopathology, body dissatisfaction, and psychological functioning in binge eating disorder. Jackson, T.D., Grilo, C.M., Masheb, R.M. Obes. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Self-esteem in special education children with ADHD: relationship to disorder characteristics and medication use. Bussing, R., Zima, B.T., Perwien, A.R. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Onset of major depressive disorder among adolescents. Hoffmann, J.P., Baldwin, S.A., Cerbone, F.G. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Psychosocial well-being and epilepsy: an empirical study. Collings, J.A. Epilepsia (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Vulnerability before, during, and after a major depressive episode: a 3-wave population-based study. Ormel, J., Oldehinkel, A.J., Vollebergh, W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Physical self perceptions of women with rheumatoid arthritis. Macsween, A., Brydson, G., Fox, K.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Self perception in bacteria: quorum sensing with acylated homoserine lactones. Fuqua, C., Greenberg, E.P. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Self-perception of body changes in persons living with HIV/AIDS: prevalence and associated factors. Santos, C.P., Felipe, Y.X., Braga, P.E., Ramos, D., Lima, R.O., Segurado, A.C. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Clinical and biochemical features of depression in Parkinson's disease. Mayeux, R., Stern, Y., Williams, J.B., Cote, L., Frantz, A., Dyrenfurth, I. The American journal of psychiatry. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Self-concept and behavior in adolescent girls with Turner syndrome: potential estrogen effects. Ross, J.L., McCauley, E., Roeltgen, D., Long, L., Kushner, H., Feuillan, P., Cutler, G.B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Health-related quality of life effects of modafinil for treatment of narcolepsy. Beusterien, K.M., Rogers, A.E., Walsleben, J.A., Emsellem, H.A., Reblando, J.A., Wang, L., Goswami, M., Steinwald, B. Sleep. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Reboxetine versus fluoxetine: an overview of efficacy and tolerability. Massana, J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Psychologic functioning in 8- to 16-year-old cancer survivors and their parents. Greenberg, H.S., Kazak, A.E., Meadows, A.T. J. Pediatr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Does the use of the Geriatric Depression Scale make redundant the need for separate measures of well-being on geriatrics wards? Coleman, P.G., Philp, I., Mullee, M.A. Age and ageing. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Psychological distress and quality of life in drug-using and non-drug-using HIV-infected women. te Vaarwerk, M.J., Gaal, E.A. European journal of public health. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Outcomes of a traditional weight control program and a nondiet alternative: a one-year comparison. Steinhardt, M.A., Bezner, J.R., Adams, T.B. The Journal of psychology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Sexual compulsivity and substance use in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men: prevalence and predictors of high-risk behaviors. Benotsch, E.G., Kalichman, S.C., Kelly, J.A. Addictive behaviors. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Alcohol and adolescents: who drinks and who doesn't? Tucker, L.A. Pediatrician. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. The effect of modafinil on self-esteem in spinal cord injury patients: a report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Mukai, A., Costa, J.L. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Physical Self Description Questionnaire: stability and discriminant validity. Marsh, H.W. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Self-concept in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a cooperative Children's Cancer Group and National Institutes of Health study. Seitzman, R.L., Glover, D.A., Meadows, A.T., Mills, J.L., Nicholson, H.S., Robison, L.L., Byrne, J., Zeltzer, L.K. Pediatric blood & cancer. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Prevalence and predictors of headaches in US adolescents. Rhee, H. Headache. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Cultural affiliation and self-esteem as predictors of internalizing symptoms among mexican american adolescents. McDonald, E.J., McCabe, K., Yeh, M., Lau, A., Garland, A., Hough, R.L. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder across the life cycle. Spencer, T., Biederman, J., Wilens, T., Harding, M., O'Donnell, D., Griffin, S. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Self-esteem in remitted patients with mood disorders is not associated with the dopamine receptor D4 and the serotonin transporter genes. Serretti, A., Macciardi, F., Di Bella, D., Catalano, M., Smeraldi, E. Psychiatry research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Physical activity, global physical self-concept, and adolescent smoking. Rodriguez, D., Audrain-McGovern, J. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Behavioral and self-concept changes after six months of enuresis treatment: a randomized, controlled trial. Longstaffe, S., Moffatt, M.E., Whalen, J.C. Pediatrics (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. The Duke Health Profile. A 17-item measure of health and dysfunction. Parkerson, G.R., Broadhead, W.E., Tse, C.K. Medical care. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Development and preliminary validation of the young adult alcohol consequences questionnaire. Read, J.P., Kahler, C.W., Strong, D.R., Colder, C.R. J. Stud. Alcohol (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Self-hypnosis in chronic pain. A multiple baseline study of five highly hypnotisable subjects. James, F.R., Large, R.G., Beale, I.L. The Clinical journal of pain. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Components of self-esteem in affective patients and non-psychiatric controls. Serretti, A., Olgiati, P., Colombo, C. Journal of affective disorders. (2005) [Pubmed]
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