The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 

Two transmembrane aspartates in presenilin-1 required for presenilin endoproteolysis and gamma-secretase activity.

Accumulation of the amyloid-beta protein ( Abeta) in the cerebral cortex is an early and invariant event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The final step in the generation of Abeta from the beta-amyloid precursor protein is an apparently intramembranous proteolysis by the elusive gamma-secretase(s). The most common cause of familial Alzheimer's disease is mutation of the genes encoding presenilins 1 and 2, which alters gamma-secretase activity to increase the production of the highly amyloidogenic Abeta42 isoform. Moreover, deletion of presenilin-1 in mice greatly reduces gamma-secretase activity, indicating that presenilin-1 mediates most of this proteolytic event. Here we report that mutation of either of two conserved transmembrane (TM) aspartate residues in presenilin-1, Asp 257 (in TM6) and Asp 385 (in TM7), substantially reduces Abeta production and increases the amounts of the carboxy-terminal fragments of beta-amyloid precursor protein that are the substrates of gamma-secretase. We observed these effects in three different cell lines as well as in cell-free microsomes. Either of the Asp --> Ala mutations also prevented the normal endoproteolysis of presenilin-1 in the TM6 --> TM7 cytoplasmic loop. In a functional presenilin-1 variant (carrying a deletion in exon 9) that is associated with familial Alzheimer's disease and which does not require this cleavage, the Asp 385 --> Ala mutation still inhibited gamma-secretase activity. Our results indicate that the two transmembrane aspartate residues are critical for both presenilin-1 endoproteolysis and gamma-secretase activity, and suggest that presenilin 1 is either a unique diaspartyl cofactor for gamma-secretase or is itself gamma-secretase, an autoactivated intramembranous aspartyl protease.[1]

References

  1. Two transmembrane aspartates in presenilin-1 required for presenilin endoproteolysis and gamma-secretase activity. Wolfe, M.S., Xia, W., Ostaszewski, B.L., Diehl, T.S., Kimberly, W.T., Selkoe, D.J. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
 
WikiGenes - Universities