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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Distinct subsets of human receptors for alphaherpesviruses mediate the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus (PrV), or bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) into cells. Glycoprotein D ( gD) is essential for receptor-mediated entry of all three viruses into cells. However, the gD homologs of these viruses share only 22-33% amino acid identity. Several entry receptors for HSV have been identified. Two of these, HveA (HVEM) and HveC (nectin-1), mediate entry of most HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains and are bound directly by HSV gD. A third receptor, HveB (nectin-2), mediates entry of HSV-2 and only a limited number of HSV-1 strains. HveB and HveC can also serve as entry receptors for PrV, whereas only HveC can serve this function for BHV-1. We show here that gD from PrV and BHV-1 binds directly to the human receptors that mediate PrV and BHV-1 entry. We expressed soluble forms of PrV gD and BHV-1 gD using recombinant baculoviruses and purified each protein. Using ELISA, we detected direct binding of PrV gD to HveB and HveC and direct binding of BHV-1 gD to HveC. Biosensor analysis revealed that PrV gD had a 10-fold higher affinity than HSV-1 gD for human HveC. In contrast, the binding of BHV-1 gD to HveC was weak. PrV gD and HSV-1 gD competed for binding to the V domain of HveC and both inhibited entry of the homologous and heterologous viruses. These data suggest that the two forms of gD bind to a common region on human HveC despite their low amino acid similarity. Based on affinities for human HveC, we predict a porcine HveC homolog may be important for PrV infection in its natural host, whereas a BHV-1 infection in its natural host may be mediated by a receptor other than a bovine HveC homolog.