Activation of second-messenger pathways reactivates latent herpes simplex virus in neuronal cultures.Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latent infections in neurons of sympathetic and sensory ganglia in humans, and reactivation of latent virus results in recurrent disease. Previously, we reported establishment of latent HSV-1 infections in neuronal cultures derived from rats, monkeys, and humans; reactivation occurs following nerve growth factor ( NGF) deprivation. The processes controlling HSV latency are not understood. Using the in vitro neuronal latency system, we have shown that latent HSV-1 reactivated in response to stimulation of at least two second-messenger pathways. Stimulation of cAMP-dependent pathways by several mechanisms or activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) resulted in reactivation of latent HSV-1. The reactivation kinetics following treatment with activators of protein kinase A and C were accelerated compared with those following NGF deprivation. 2-Aminopurine, which inhibits NGF-stimulated protein kinases and other classes of protein kinases, but does not effect protein kinase A or C, blocked reactivation produced by NGF deprivation or treatment with a cAMP analog, but not reactivation by PMA treatment. These results demonstrate that latent HSV-1 reactivates in neurons in vitro in response to activation of second-messenger pathways.
- Activation of second-messenger pathways reactivates latent herpes simplex virus in neuronal cultures. Smith, R.L., Pizer, L.I., Johnson, E.M., Wilcox, C.L. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]