Antiviral activity of the marine alga Symphyocladia latiuscula against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in vitro and its therapeutic efficacy against HSV-1 infection in mice.The antiviral activities of extracts from 5 species of marine algae collected at Haeundae (Pusan, Korea), were examined using plaque reduction assays. Although the activity of a methanol (MeOH) extract of Sargassum ringoldianum (Sargassaceae) was the most potent against several types of viruses, it was also cytotoxic. A MeOH extract of Symphyocladia latiuscula (Rhodomelaceae) and its fractions exhibited antiviral activities against acyclovir (ACV) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA)-resistant (AP(r)) herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), thymidine kinase ( TK(-)) deficient HSV-1 and wild type HSV-1 in vitro without cytotoxicity. The major component, 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether (TDB) of a CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble fraction was active against wild type HSV-1, as well as AP(r) HSV-1 and TK(-) HSV-1 (IC(50) values of 5.48, 4.81 and 23.3 microg/ml, respectively). The therapeutic effectiveness of the MeOH extract and TDB from S. latiuscula was further examined in BALB/c mice that were cutaneously infected with HSV-1 strain 7401H. Three daily oral administrations of the MeOH extract and TDB significantly delayed the appearance of score 2 skin lesions (local vesicles) and limited the development of further score 6 (mild zosteriform) lesions in infected mice without toxicity compared with controls. In addition, TDB suppressed virus yields in the brain and skin. Therefore TDB should be a promising anti HSV agent.
- Antiviral activity of the marine alga Symphyocladia latiuscula against herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in vitro and its therapeutic efficacy against HSV-1 infection in mice. Park, H.J., Kurokawa, M., Shiraki, K., Nakamura, N., Choi, J.S., Hattori, M. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]