High-mobility group protein A1 binds herpes simplex virus gene regulatory sequences and affects their expression.The high-mobility group protein A1 (HMGA1), which regulates mammalian gene expression by altering chromatin architecture, was found to bind at multiple sites within the promoter regions of all of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate early genes, as well as a representative early (tk) gene and one late (gC) gene, both in vitro and in vivo. Infected cell polypeptide (ICP) 4, the major HSV-1 regulatory protein, binds these promoters both in vitro and in vivo, and HMGA1 enhances its in vitro binding. In transient expression experiments, HMGA1 modified the effects of both ICP4 and ICP0, another virus transactivator, on virus gene expression in a promoter-specific manner, but it had no effect on the transactivation of immediate-early promoters by VP16. These data indicate that host-cell architectural chromatin proteins could influence the interactions of host-cell and viral transcription factors with the virus DNA regulatory elements and affect HSV-1 gene expression.
- High-mobility group protein A1 binds herpes simplex virus gene regulatory sequences and affects their expression. Matta, M.K., Panagiotidis, C.A. Arch. Virol. (2008) [Pubmed]