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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of androgen-dependent prostatic cancer cell growth: androgen regulation of CDK2, CDK4, and CKI p16 genes.

Growth of prostatic epithelial cells is androgen-dependent; however, the mechanism of androgen action on cell growth is not well defined. We investigated whether androgen-dependent prostatic epithelial cell growth is mediated by androgen regulation of expression of genes controlling cell cycle progression. For this purpose, we used an androgen-dependent prostatic cancer cell line, LNCaP-FGC, as an in vitro model. We found that expression of CDK2 and CDK4 genes were up-regulated within hours of androgen treatment as detected in Northern and Western blot analyses. Kinase assay also confirmed that there was increased CDK2 kinase activity upon androgen stimulation. Moreover, androgen down-regulated expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 ( MTS1, CDKN2) gene. The overall effects of these androgen actions result in an increased cyclin-dependent kinase activity and stimulation of the cell to enter S phase of the cell cycle, thereby enhancing cell proliferation. In contrast, an androgen-independent PC-3 cell line lost its response to androgen stimulation, and higher basal levels of CDK2, CDK4, and p16 genes were constitutively expressed in PC-3 cells. Collectively, these data suggest a possible signaling pathway of androgen in stimulating cell growth. These results also imply that in androgen-dependent prostate cancer, increased androgen receptor ( AR) activity, resulting from AR gain-of-function mutations, AR gene amplification, or AR gene overexpression, malignantly stimulates proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells and constitutes one possible mechanism of androgen-dependent tumorigenesis.[1]


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