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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex increases cholecystokinin, glutamate, and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens: an in vivo microdialysis study in freely moving rats.

In vivo microdialysis, radioimmunoassay, and HPLC with electrochemical or fluorometric detection were used to investigate the release of cholecystokinin ( CCK), glutamate (Glu), and dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) as a function of ipsilateral electrical stimulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CCK was progressively elevated by mPFC stimulation at 50-200 Hz. Stimulation-induced CCK release was intensity-dependent at 250-700 microA. NAS Glu and DA levels were each elevated by stimulation at 25-400 Hz; the dopamine metabolites DOPAC and homovanillic acid were increased by stimulation at 100-400 Hz. When rats were trained to lever press for mPFC stimulation, the stimulation induced similar elevations of each of the three transmitters to those seen with experimenter-administered stimulation. Perfusion of 1 mM kynurenic acid (Kyn) into either the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or NAS blocked lever pressing for mPFC stimulation. VTA, but not NAS, perfusion of Kyn significantly attenuated the increases in NAS DA levels induced by mPFC stimulation. Kyn did not affect NAS CCK or Glu levels when perfused into either the VTA or NAS. The present results are consistent with histochemical evidence and provide the first in vivo evidence for the existence of a releasable pool of CCK in the NAS originating from the mPFC. Although dopamine is the transmitter most closely linked to reward function, it was CCK that showed frequency-dependent differences in release corresponding most closely to rewarding efficacy of the stimulation. Although not essential for the reward signal itself, coreleased CCK may modulate the impact of the glutamatergic action in this behavior.[1]


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