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Chemical Compound Review

Polybrene     1,3-dibromopropane; N,N,N',N'...

Synonyms: Hexadimethrine, NSC-118096, AC1L2NNR, LS-75060, NSC118096, ...
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Disease relevance of Koolizer 1


High impact information on Koolizer 1


Chemical compound and disease context of Koolizer 1


Biological context of Koolizer 1

  • Satisfactory frequency of G418-resistant transfectants (0.66%) was achieved using a protocol recently published by Chen and Okayama (Mol. Cell Biol., 7: 2745-2752, 1987), which was found to be superior to the traditional calcium phosphate transfection method and to the polybrene-based method [15].
  • Cells transfected with pSV2neo, a plasmid containing the neo gene, served as controls for the procedure of Polybrene-mediated transfection [16].
  • Neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes by polybrene-induced DNA-mediated transfer of an activated oncogene [17].
  • Furthermore, the transgene was detected only in the progeny of flow cytometer sorted CD34+ population transduced by the LAPSN (PG13) viral vector in the presence of cationic lipids but not when transduction was facilitated with conventional polycations Polybrene or protamine sulfate [18].
  • Two of these assays are based on coagulation tests, i.e., activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time, while the third is based on chemical neutralization of heparin using hexadimethrine bromide [19].

Anatomical context of Koolizer 1


Associations of Koolizer 1 with other chemical compounds

  • In general, the enzymatically active carboxy-terminal fragment of HF (HFf) was inhibited by the same agents that inhibited HFea, but aprotinin, protamine sulfate and hexadimethrine bromide were more effective against HFf than HFea, while the reverse was true of lima bean trypsin inhibitor [24].
  • Activity is not affected by glass contact and is not inhibited by inhibitors of contact or enzymatic activation of Hageman factor (hexadimethrine bromide, 100 mug/ml; cytochrome C, 250 mug/ml; spermidine, 2 mM; phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, 1 mM) [25].
  • Additionally, it was inhibited by popcorn inhibitor, leupeptin, hexadimethrine bromide, protamine sulfate, dansyl-arginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl) amide (DAPA), diisopropylphosphofluoridate (DFP), aprotinin, and at excessively high concentrations, soybean and lima bean trypsin inhibitors [24].
  • The dysregulated tryptase in SOCS1-/- BMMCs is unlikely to be mMCP6 or mMCP7, because the enzyme activity was not inhibited by Polybrene but was inhibited by normal mouse plasma [26].
  • Treatment of Ag-pulsed OT-1 CTL with agents that alter cell surface charge, including trypsin, papain, tunicamycin, neuraminidase, and polybrene, allowed Ag-specific TCR capping [27].

Gene context of Koolizer 1

  • These results suggest that, in AKR-2B cells, HB-EGF may mediate its mitogenic response at least in part through a receptor which appears to be selective for HB-EGF and permits HB-EGF-mediated mitogenic responses in the presence of hexadimethrine or heparin [28].
  • Finally, hexadimethrine inhibited the specific binding and mitogenic activity of bFGF, suggesting that this cationic polymer can function as an antagonist of heparin-binding mitogens other than AR [28].
  • Polybrene and interleukin-4: two opposing factors for retroviral transduction of bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells [29].
  • AML5 cells were cultured overnight with L(Flt3-L)SN retroviral supernatant, 8 micrograms/mL polybrene, and 100 U/mL G-CSF, and expanded 1 week in medium with G-CSF [30].
  • For Kc cells, calcium phosphate was ineffective for transfection, and after transfection with polybrene neither pYP1CAT nor pVgCAT was induced by the juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Koolizer 1

  • Transduction efficiency was optimal when infection included centrifugation of cells with concentrated vector supernatant in the presence of Polybrene [32].
  • Of 1068 blood samples referred for evaluation of the haemostatic mechanism 135 contained heparin as judged by the polybrene titration method [33].
  • A polybrene capillary coating in capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used for rapid analysis of hemoglobin variant digests [34].
  • In the HDM proteinuric rats of both series, the filtration of all three markers was significantly increased, although the GSCs of the anionic markers continued to exceed that of nIgG [13].
  • Most of this anticoagulant activity was recovered from the plasma by Polybrene affinity chromatography and was probably a sulphated glycosaminoglycan [35].


  1. Neutralization of low molecular weight heparin by polybrene prevents thromboxane release and severe pulmonary hypertension in awake sheep. Montalescot, G., Zapol, W.M., Carvalho, A., Robinson, D.R., Torres, A., Lowenstein, E. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro. Speers, W.C., Birdwell, C.R., Dixon, F.J. Am. J. Pathol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. In vitro infection with HIV enables human CD4+ T cell clones to induce noncognate contact-dependent polyclonal B cell activation. Macchia, D., Parronchi, P., Piccinni, M.P., Simonelli, C., Mazzetti, M., Ravina, A., Milo, D., Maggi, E., Romagnani, S. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Reversible hexadimethrine-induced alterations in glomerular structure and permeability. Bridges, C.R., Rennke, H.G., Deen, W.M., Troy, J.L., Brenner, B.M. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficient gene transfer of VSV-G pseudotyped retroviral vector to human brain tumor. Lee, H., Song, J.J., Kim, E., Yun, C.O., Choi, J., Lee, B., Kim, J., Chang, J.W., Kim, J.H. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of polycations on pulmonary vascular permeability in conscious sheep. Toyofuku, T., Koyama, S., Kobayashi, T., Kusama, S., Ueda, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional domains of rabbit thrombomodulin. Bourin, M.C., Boffa, M.C., Björk, I., Lindahl, U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Detection of lymphocytes producing a human retrovirus associated with adult T-cell leukemia by syncytia induction assay. Hoshino, H., Shimoyama, M., Miwa, M., Sugimura, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Ex vivo expansion and selection of human CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells after introduction of a mutated dihydrofolate reductase cDNA via retroviral gene transfer. Flasshove, M., Banerjee, D., Mineishi, S., Li, M.X., Bertino, J.R., Moore, M.A. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell surface heparan sulfate is a receptor for attachment of envelope protein-free retrovirus-like particles and VSV-G pseudotyped MLV-derived retrovirus vectors to target cells. Guibinga, G.H., Miyanohara, A., Esko, J.D., Friedmann, T. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Complexation of retrovirus with cationic and anionic polymers increases the efficiency of gene transfer. Le Doux, J.M., Landazuri, N., Yarmush, M.L., Morgan, J.R. Hum. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Glomerular charge and urinary protein excretion: effects of systemic and intrarenal polycation infusion in the rat. Vehaskari, V.M., Root, E.R., Germuth, F.G., Robson, A.M. Kidney Int. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Glomerular sieving of high molecular weight proteins in proteinuric rats. Bertolatus, J.A., Abuyousef, M., Hunsicker, L.G. Kidney Int. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with predominance of IgA autoantibody. Wolf, C.F., Wolf, D.J., Peterson, P., Brandstetter, R.D., Hansen, D.E. Transfusion (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Cellular and molecular characteristics of an immortalized ataxia-telangiectasia (group AB) cell line. Ziv, Y., Jaspers, N.G., Etkin, S., Danieli, T., Trakhtenbrot, L., Amiel, A., Ravia, Y., Shiloh, Y. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Metastatic potential of cloned murine melanoma cells transfected with activated c-Ha-ras. Price, J.E., Aukerman, S.L., Ananthaswamy, H.N., McIntyre, B.W., Schackert, G., Schackert, H.K., Fidler, I.J. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Neoplastic transformation of human keratinocytes by polybrene-induced DNA-mediated transfer of an activated oncogene. Rhim, J.S., Park, J.B., Jay, G. Oncogene (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. GaLV pseudotyped vectors and cationic lipids transduce human CD34+ cells. Dybing, J., Lynch, C.M., Hara, P., Jurus, L., Kiem, H.P., Anklesaria, P. Hum. Gene Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Heparin kinetics determined by three assay methods. Bjornsson, T.D., Wolfram, K.M., Kitchell, B.B. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Sequence from picomole quantities of proteins electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Matsudaira, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Transfection of myeloid cell lines using polybrene/DMSO. Chisholm, O., Symonds, G. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Polybrene increases the efficiency of gene transfer by lipofection. Abe, A., Miyanohara, A., Friedmann, T. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor beta by capillary electrophoresis. Yao, Y.J., Loh, K.C., Chung, M.C., Li, S.F. Electrophoresis (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Studies on the inhibition of ellagic acid-activated Hageman factor (factor XII) and Hageman factor fragments. Ratnoff, O.D. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Fibrinolysis in normal plasma and blood: evidence for significant mechanisms independent of the plasminogen-plasmin system. Moroz, L.A., Gilmore, N.J. Blood (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 regulates an endogenous inhibitor of a mast cell protease. Ilangumaran, S., Finan, D., Raine, J., Rottapel, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Functional segregation of the TCR and antigen-MHC complexes on the surface of CTL. Mekala, D.J., Geiger, T.L. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential effects of a heparin antagonist (hexadimethrine) or chlorate on amphiregulin, basic fibroblast growth factor, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor activity. Cook, P.W., Ashton, N.M., Karkaria, C.E., Siess, D.C., Shipley, G.D. J. Cell. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Polybrene and interleukin-4: two opposing factors for retroviral transduction of bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells. Fresnay, S., Chalmers, D.E., Ferrand, C., Colombain, C., Newton, I., Yerly-Motta, V., Lienard, A., Darodes de Tailly, P., Hervé, P., Tiberghien, P., Saas, P. The journal of gene medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Retroviral mediated gene transfer of Flt3 ligand enhances proliferation and MAP kinase activity of AML5 cells. Braun, S.E., Aronica, S.M., Ge, Y., Takahira, H., Etienne-Julan, M., Lu, L., Minden, M.D., Lyman, S.D., Broxmeyer, H.E. Exp. Hematol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Yolk polypeptide gene expression in cultured Drosophila cells. Walker, V.K., Schreiber, M., Purvis, C., George, J., Wyatt, G.R., Bendena, W.G. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Gene transfer into stimulated and unstimulated T lymphocytes by HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors. Costello, E., Munoz, M., Buetti, E., Meylan, P.R., Diggelmann, H., Thali, M. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. On the value of the activated partial thrombo-plastin time (aptt) in monitoring heparin therapy. Teien, A.N., Abildgaard, U. Thromb. Haemost. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Use of a polybrene capillary coating in capillary electrophoresis for rapid analysis of hemoglobin variants with on-line detection via an ion trap storage/reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Li, M.X., Liu, L., Wu, J.T., Lubman, D.M. Anal. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Low molecular weight heparin is responsible for the anti-Xa activity of Desmin 370. Brieger, D., Dawes, J. Thromb. Haemost. (1996) [Pubmed]
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