The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

etanidazole     N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(2- nitroimidazol-1...

Synonyms: Radinyl, Etandazole, Etanidazol, Etanidazolum, SR-2508, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SR 2508


High impact information on SR 2508


Chemical compound and disease context of SR 2508


Biological context of SR 2508


Anatomical context of SR 2508

  • However, MISO, SR-2508 and Ro-03-8799 were less effective in this cell line than in V79 cells, presumably due to higher GSH content of the A549 cells [16].
  • Vitamin E succinate also protected spinal cord cultures from etanidazole-induced neuronal loss [14].
  • Sensitizer enhancement ratios (SER) for a range of SR-2508 concentrations were determined for human tumor cell lines varying in inherent GSH levels [17].
  • In CHO cells exposed to SR-2508 under hypoxic conditions, this unstable GSH conjugate has been detected and suggests the possibility of GSH functioning as a carrier of a toxic metabolite of 2-nitroimidazoles under certain conditions [18].
  • Ro 03-8799 produces an acute, transient central nervous system syndrome, whereas SR 2508 causes cumulative, peripheral neurotoxicity; both effects are dose-limiting [19].

Associations of SR 2508 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of SR 2508

  • PEG modulated release of etanidazole from implantable PLGA/PDLA discs [23].
  • BSO increased the maximum SER for SR 2508 (3 mM/fraction) from 1.2 to 1.4 in the RIF tumor, and from 1.4 to 1.8 in the MCA tumor [24].
  • However, the combination of BSO and SR-2508 in hypoxic cells resulted in SSB and DSB comparable to oxic irradiation [25].
  • SR2508 (etanidazole) pharmacokinetics and biochemical effects in tumor and normal tissues of scid mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma [26].
  • Planned doses of etanidazole were 1.8 g/m(2) x 17 doses (30.6 g/m(2)) at Step 1 to a maximum of 2.4 g/m(2) x 21 doses (50.4 g/m(2)) at Step 8 [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SR 2508


  1. Addition of misonidazole, etanidazole, or hyperthermia to treatment with fluosol-DA/carbogen/radiation. Teicher, B.A., Herman, T.S., Holden, S.A., Jones, S.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Relationship between the neurotoxicity of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer SR 2508 and the pharmacokinetic profile. Coleman, C.N., Halsey, J., Cox, R.S., Hirst, V.K., Blaschke, T., Howes, A.E., Wasserman, T.H., Urtasun, R.C., Pajak, T., Hancock, S. Cancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. A phase I study of SR-2508 and cyclophosphamide administered by intravenous injection. Bailey, H., Mulcahy, R.T., Tutsch, K.D., Rozental, J.M., Alberti, D., Arzoomanian, R.Z., Tombes, M.B., Trump, D.L., Wilding, G. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of [18F]fluoroetanidazole, a new radiopharmaceutical for detecting tumor hypoxia. Rasey, J.S., Hofstrand, P.D., Chin, L.K., Tewson, T.J. J. Nucl. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. A phase I trial of etanidazole and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with diffuse brainstem glioma. Marcus, K.J., Dutton, S.C., Barnes, P., Coleman, C.N., Pomeroy, S.L., Goumnerova, L., Billett, A.L., Kieran, M., Tarbell, N.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Clinical pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and metabolites with and without SR-2508. Chan, K.K., Hong, P.S., Tutsch, K., Trump, D.L. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Detection of hypoxic cells by monoclonal antibody recognizing 2-nitroimidazole adducts. Lord, E.M., Harwell, L., Koch, C.J. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Classification of antineoplastic treatments by their differential toxicity toward putative oxygenated and hypoxic tumor subpopulations in vivo in the FSaIIC murine fibrosarcoma. Teicher, B.A., Holden, S.A., al-Achi, A., Herman, T.S. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. A phase I study of the combination of two hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, Ro 03-8799 and SR-2508: toxicity and pharmacokinetics. Newman, H.F., Bleehen, N.M., Workman, P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Radiosensitization by 2-nitroimidazole nucleoside analog RP-170: radiosensitizing effects under both intravenous and oral administration. Murayama, C., Suzuki, A., Sato, C., Tanabe, Y., Miyata, Y., Shoji, T., Suzuki, T., Sakaguchi, M., Mori, T. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Radiosensitization by the combination of etanidazole (SR-2508) and pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) in human tumor xenografts. Taghian, A., Lespinasse, F., Guichard, M.E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. A fluorinated 2-nitroimidazole, KU-2285, as a new hypoxic cell radiosensitizer. Sasai, K., Nishimoto, S., Shimokawa, K., Hisanaga, Y., Kitakabu, Y., Shibamoto, Y., Zhou, L., Wang, J., Takahashi, M., Kagiya, T. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Radiosensitization by a new potent nucleoside analog: 1-(1',3',4'-trihydroxy-2'-butoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole(RP-343). Murayama, C., Suzuki, A., Sato, C., Tanabe, Y., Shoji, T., Miyata, Y., Nishio, A., Suzuki, T., Sakaguchi, M., Mori, T. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Modification of the aerobic cytotoxicity of etanidazole. Palayoor, S.T., Bump, E.A., Malaker, K., Langley, R.E., Saroff, D.M., Delfs, J.R., Hurwitz, S.J., Coleman, C.N. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Sensitization by SR-2508 plus Ro 03-8799. Stone, H.B., Luu, Y.H., Lam, K.N. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers in a human tumor cell line high in intracellular glutathione. DeGraff, W.G., Russo, A., Gamson, J., Mitchell, J.B. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. The relationship of SR-2508 sensitizer enhancement ratio to cellular glutathione levels in human tumor cell lines. Mitchell, J.B., Phillips, T.L., DeGraff, W., Carmichael, J., Rajpal, R.K., Russo, A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of a reactive glutathione conjugate as a metabolite of SR-2508 in CHO cells. Varghese, A.J., Whitmore, G.F. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Abnormal clinical pharmacokinetics of the developmental radiosensitizers pimonidazole (Ro 03-8799) and etanidazole (SR 2508). Maughan, T.S., Newman, H.F., Bleehen, N.M., Ward, R., Workman, P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Dose escalation of the hypoxic cell sensitizer etanidazole combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell support. Elias, A.D., Wheeler, C., Ayash, L.J., Schwartz, G., Ibrahim, J., Mills, L., McCauley, M., Coleman, N., Warren, D., Schnipper, L., Antman, K.H., Teicher, B.A., Frei, E. Clin. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Comparison of radiosensitizing effect of KU-2285 and SR-2508 at low drug concentrations and doses. Shibata, T., Shibamoto, Y., Oya, N., Sasai, K., Murata, R., Ishigaki, T., Abe, M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Sensitization of Chinese hamster ovary cells to melphalan by etanidazole under intermittent hypoxia. Bump, E.A., Coleman, C.N., Cerce, B.A., McGinnis, D.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. PEG modulated release of etanidazole from implantable PLGA/PDLA discs. Wang, F., Lee, T., Wang, C.H. Biomaterials (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of glutathione (GSH) depletion in vivo by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on the radiosensitization of SR 2508. Kramer, R.A., Soble, M., Howes, A.E., Montoya, V.P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Modulation of X ray DNA damage by SR-2508 +/- buthionine sulfoximine. Kinsella, T.J., Dobson, P.P., Russo, A., Mitchell, J.B., Fornace, A.J. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. SR2508 (etanidazole) pharmacokinetics and biochemical effects in tumor and normal tissues of scid mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma. O'Dwyer, P.J., Panting, L., LaCreta, F.P., Clapper, M.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Logistics in designing clinical trials for etanidazole (SR 2508): an RTOG experience. Lee, D.J., Phillips, T.L., Coleman, C.N., Cosmatos, D., Davis, L.W., Wasserman, T.H., Marcial, V.A., Rubin, P. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Combined-modality therapy of esophageal cancer with radiotherapy, etanidazole, and cisplatin-fluorouracil, with or without surgery: neurotoxicity, other toxicities and outcome. Buswell, L., Recht, A., Clark, J., Ravikumar, T., Busse, P.M., Coleman, C.N. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Final report of the phase I trial of continuous infusion etanidazole (SR 2508): a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study. Coleman, C.N., Noll, L., Riese, N., Buswell, L., Howes, A.E., Loeffler, J.S., Alexander, E., Wen, P., Harris, J.R., Kramer, R.A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. RTOG #89-06: a phase I study to evaluate intraoperative radiation therapy and the hypoxic cell sensitizer etanidazole in locally advanced malignancies. Halberg, F.E., Cosmatis, D., Gunderson, L.L., Noyes, R.D., Hanks, G.R., Buswell, L., Nagorney, D.M., Coleman, C.N. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Results of a European randomized trial of Etanidazole combined with radiotherapy in head and neck carcinomas. Eschwège, F., Sancho-Garnier, H., Chassagne, D., Brisgand, D., Guerra, M., Malaise, E.P., Bey, P., Busutti, L., Cionini, L., N'Guyen, T., Romanini, A., Chavaudra, J., Hill, C. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities