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Gene Review

prgH  -  secretion system protein PrgH

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2

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Disease relevance of prgH


High impact information on prgH

  • Previously, prgH and prgK were shown to be required for formation of the supramolecular type III secretion needle complex (NC) [Kubori, T., et al. (1998) Science 280, 602-605] [2].
  • In order to understand how HilA controls the transcription of SPI-1 genes, we have analysed the invF and prgH promoters [3].
  • SirA of Salmonella typhimurium is known to regulate the hilA and prgH genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) [4].
  • Here we describe four genes (SspB, sspC, sspD, and sspA), located between spaT and prgH, which encode proteins of 63, 42, 36, and 87 kDa, respectively [5].
  • At least one prg locus, prgH, is required for full S. typhimurium mouse virulence [6].

Biological context of prgH

  • The invasion defect of PrgH but not that of PhoPc mutant bacteria was complemented by plasmids containing prgH (hil) DNA [7].
  • One prg locus, prgH, was demonstrated to contribute to mouse virulence by both the oral and the intraperitoneal routes. prgH was located at 59 min on the Salmonella chromosome, a region where other genes essential to invasion of epithelial cells are clustered [7].
  • The prgH locus was highly linked to one invasion locus, hil (C.A. Lee, B.D. Jones, and S. Falkow, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:1847-1851, 1992), although transcription of prgH was opposite that of the Tn5B50-encoded promoters that result in a hyperinvasive or hil phenotype [7].

Anatomical context of prgH

  • Previously, growth in the presence of bile was shown to repress the transcription of prgH, a locus encoding components of the Salmonella pathogenicity island I (SPI-1) type III secretion system (TTSS) necessary for eukaryotic cell invasion [8].
  • Increased levels of pmrH, phoP, and prgH transcription but not ssaB were observed in bacteria isolated from the lumen of the distal ileum [9].

Other interactions of prgH

  • Here, we present experiments indicating that orgA expression is driven by the prgH promoter [10].
  • Invasion-deficient S. typhimurium strains carrying mutations in components of SPI1 (invA, invG, sspC, and prgH) exhibited filamentous appendages similar to those on wild-type S. typhimurium when adhering to epithelial cells, demonstrating that formation of these appendages is not itself sufficient to trigger bacterial invasion [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of prgH

  • In addition, using reverse transcriptase PCR analysis, we have found that this polycistronic message extends downstream of prgH to include a total of 10 genes [10].


  1. PhoP/PhoQ transcriptional repression of Salmonella typhimurium invasion genes: evidence for a role in protein secretion. Pegues, D.A., Hantman, M.J., Behlau, I., Miller, S.I. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Contribution of Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion components to needle complex formation. Kimbrough, T.G., Miller, S.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The cis requirements for transcriptional activation by HilA, a virulence determinant encoded on SPI-1. Lostroh, C.P., Bajaj, V., Lee, C.A. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Salmonella SirA is a global regulator of genes mediating enteropathogenesis. Ahmer, B.M., van Reeuwijk, J., Watson, P.R., Wallis, T.S., Heffron, F. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Salmonella typhimurium secreted invasion determinants are homologous to Shigella Ipa proteins. Hueck, C.J., Hantman, M.J., Bajaj, V., Johnston, C., Lee, C.A., Miller, S.I. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. PhoP/PhoQ: macrophage-specific modulators of Salmonella virulence? Miller, S.I. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. A PhoP-repressed gene promotes Salmonella typhimurium invasion of epithelial cells. Behlau, I., Miller, S.I. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium invasion is repressed in the presence of bile. Prouty, A.M., Gunn, J.S. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Resolvase-in vivo expression technology analysis of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PhoP and PmrA regulons in BALB/c mice. Merighi, M., Ellermeier, C.D., Slauch, J.M., Gunn, J.S. J. Bacteriol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcriptional organization and function of invasion genes within Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenicity island 1, including the prgH, prgI, prgJ, prgK, orgA, orgB, and orgC genes. Klein, J.R., Fahlen, T.F., Jones, B.D. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell-contact-stimulated formation of filamentous appendages by Salmonella typhimurium does not depend on the type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1. Reed, K.A., Clark, M.A., Booth, T.A., Hueck, C.J., Miller, S.I., Hirst, B.H., Jepson, M.A. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
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