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Gene Review

Galr2  -  galanin receptor 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GAL2-R, GALR-2, GalR2, Galanin receptor type 2, Galnr2, ...
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Disease relevance of Galr2


Psychiatry related information on Galr2


High impact information on Galr2

  • Further, exogenous galanin or the previously described high-affinity GALR2 agonist, both reduced cell death when coadministered with glutamate or staurosporine in WT cultures [5].
  • Phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in the type 2 galanin receptor (GALR2) [6].
  • Photoaffinity labeling of G proteins in H69 cell membranes revealed that GALR2 activates G proteins of three subfamilies: G(q), G(i), and G(12) [3].
  • These data suggest that a lack of GalR2 activation in Gal-KO and GalR2-MUT animals is responsible for the observed developmental deficits in the DRG, and the decrease in neurite outgrowth in the adult [7].
  • Mice deficient for galanin receptor 2 have decreased neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons and impaired pain-like behaviour [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Galr2

  • These observations demonstrate that neither GALR1 nor GALR2 are essential for mediating the effects of GALP on feeding, body weight or LH secretion [2].

Biological context of Galr2


Anatomical context of Galr2

  • These data are in line with earlier observations from the peripheral and central nervous system, suggesting that galanin actions mediated by GalR2 subtype are of importance in neurodevelopment and neuroprotection [1].
  • GalR1, but not GalR2 or GalR3, is specifically up-regulated in the LC-like Cath.a cell line in a cAMP-dependent manner [11].
  • GalR1, but not GalR2 or GalR3, levels are regulated by galanin signaling in the locus coeruleus through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism [11].
  • In binding studies utilizing membranes from COS-7 cells transfected with mouse GalR2 cDNA, the receptor displayed high affinity (K(D) = 0.47 nM) and saturable binding with 125I-galanin (Bmax = 670 fmol/mg) [12].
  • However, the contribution of the two main galanin receptors; GalR1 and GalR2, present in the hippocampus to these effects is not known [8].

Associations of Galr2 with chemical compounds

  • On the other hand, stimulation of the GAL2 receptor at the raphe level by local application of the GAL2 receptor agonist galanin (2-11) has been shown to increase serotonin levels in the hippocampus and dorsal raphe [13].

Regulatory relationships of Galr2

  • Superfusion of galanin (1-29) or galanin (2-11) blocked the LTP induction to the same degree indicating a role for GalR2 in the induction phase of DG LTP [8].

Other interactions of Galr2

  • Adult GalR2-MUT animals also have a one third reduction in neurite outgrowth from cultured DRG neurons that cannot be rescued by either galanin or a high-affinity GalR2/3 agonist [7].
  • Interestingly, regional qPCR analysis failed to reveal any changes in GALR2 or GALR3 expression in the GAL-tg mice, suggesting that, contrary to GALR1, these receptor genes are not under ligand-mediated regulatory control [14].


  1. Sensory neuronal phenotype in galanin receptor 2 knockout mice: focus on dorsal root ganglion neurone development and pain behaviour. Shi, T.J., Hua, X.Y., Lu, X., Malkmus, S., Kinney, J., Holmberg, K., Wirz, S., Ceccatelli, S., Yaksh, T., Bartfai, T., Hökfelt, T. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of the contribution of galanin receptors 1 and 2 to the central actions of galanin-like peptide. Krasnow, S.M., Hohmann, J.G., Gragerov, A., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Neuroendocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The galanin receptor type 2 initiates multiple signaling pathways in small cell lung cancer cells by coupling to G(q), G(i) and G(12) proteins. Wittau, N., Grosse, R., Kalkbrenner, F., Gohla, A., Schultz, G., Gudermann, T. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3 immunoreactivity in catecholaminergic nuclei of the mouse brain. Hawes, J.J., Picciotto, M.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus. Elliott-Hunt, C.R., Marsh, B., Bacon, A., Pope, R., Vanderplank, P., Wynick, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Phenotypic analysis of mice deficient in the type 2 galanin receptor (GALR2). Gottsch, M.L., Zeng, H., Hohmann, J.G., Weinshenker, D., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Mice deficient for galanin receptor 2 have decreased neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons and impaired pain-like behaviour. Hobson, S.A., Holmes, F.E., Kerr, N.C., Pope, R.J., Wynick, D. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of galanin receptor 1 and galanin receptor 2 activation in synaptic plasticity associated with 3',5'-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus: studies with a galanin receptor 2 agonist and galanin receptor 1 knockout mice. Badie-Mahdavi, H., Lu, X., Behrens, M.M., Bartfai, T. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of limbic status epilepticus by hippocampal galanin type 1 and type 2 receptors. Mazarati, A., Lu, X. Neuropeptides (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. Kolakowski, L.F., O'Neill, G.P., Howard, A.D., Broussard, S.R., Sullivan, K.A., Feighner, S.D., Sawzdargo, M., Nguyen, T., Kargman, S., Shiao, L.L., Hreniuk, D.L., Tan, C.P., Evans, J., Abramovitz, M., Chateauneuf, A., Coulombe, N., Ng, G., Johnson, M.P., Tharian, A., Khoshbouei, H., George, S.R., Smith, R.G., O'Dowd, B.F. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. GalR1, but not GalR2 or GalR3, levels are regulated by galanin signaling in the locus coeruleus through a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. Hawes, J.J., Brunzell, D.H., Wynick, D., Zachariou, V., Picciotto, M.R. J. Neurochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The mouse GalR2 galanin receptor: genomic organization, cDNA cloning, and functional characterization. Pang, L., Hashemi, T., Lee, H.J., Maguire, M., Graziano, M.P., Bayne, M., Hawes, B., Wong, G., Wang, S. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Galanin receptor antagonists : a potential novel pharmacological treatment for mood disorders. Ogren, S.O., Kuteeva, E., Hökfelt, T., Kehr, J. CNS drugs. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Ectopic galanin expression and normal galanin receptor 2 and galanin receptor 3 mRNA levels in the forebrain of galanin transgenic mice. He, B., Counts, S.E., Perez, S.E., Hohmann, J.G., Koprich, J.B., Lipton, J.W., Steiner, R.A., Crawley, J.N., Mufson, E.J. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
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