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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

env  -  env

Simian-Human immunodeficiency virus

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Disease relevance of env


High impact information on env

  • We developed an AIDS vaccine based on attenuated VSV vectors expressing env and gag genes and tested it in rhesus monkeys [4].
  • Here we demonstrated that cells expressing murine CXCR4 and human CD4 fused with cells expressing the env proteins derived from T cell line-tropic HIV-1 and were infected with T cell line-tropic HIV-1 strains [5].
  • For HMA, reference plasmids were constructed containing the V1-V5 env region sequences (1.2-kb) representative of local subtypes [6].
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that the tropism of NL4-3(M) is extended to primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and to determine whether the envelope gene, env, of NL4-3(M) is responsible for cytopathicity in HL-60 cells and replication in MDM [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The viral determinants of NL4-3(M) sufficient to extend the tropism of this virus to MDM reside, in part, in env [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of env

  • Ubiquitination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env glycoprotein [8].
  • The fitness of the primary B5 HIV-1 isolates and its env gene cloned into the NL4-3 laboratory strain had similar fitness, and both were more fit than the C5 primary isolate and its env/NL4-3 chimeric counterpart [9].
  • Here we report the construction and use of a full-length env gene-cassetting system, C2, based on the HIV-1 infectious molecular clone NL43 [10].
  • HIV-1 encodes a sequence overlapping env gp41 with highly significant similarity to selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases [11].

Biological context of env

  • METHODS: A chimeric virus (NL4-3envA) containing the majority of env of NL4-3(M) was generated, and tested for virus replication and cytopathic effect in H9 and HL-60 cells, as well as for virus replication in primary MDM [7].
  • METHODS: Proviral HIV-1 DNA was subtyped by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) based on the 799 base-pair V3-V5 region of the env gene (n = 47) or by sequence analysis of the p17 region of the gag gene (n = 33), or both [6].
  • Replication capacity assays suggested that the outgrowth of strain B was not due to higher fitness conferred by pol, and env sequences indicated that the two strains had the same R5 coreceptor phenotype [12].
  • Phylogenetic analysis of gag and env sequences revealed an extraordinary degree of genetic diversity, including evidence for frequent recombination events in both the recent and distant past [13].
  • We also compared viral genomes from the genital tract and plasma of four additional heterosexually infected women, sequencing 164 env and gag clones obtained from the two sites [14].

Anatomical context of env


Associations of env with chemical compounds

  • Increased fitness of the B5 over C5 virus was mediated by the gp120 coding region of the env gene [9].
  • These results indicate that morphine dependence plays a role in the pathogenesis of SIV/SHIV infection and env evolution [18].
  • Phylogenetic analysis of our sequences and 69 complete env genes from the Los Alamos and GenBank databases revealed multiple subclusters within subtype C. The V3 loop region was relatively conserved in all our strains when compared with other subtypes, but the region immediately downstream was highly variable [19].

Other interactions of env

  • Of the 131 HIV-1-positive specimens collected, all contained detectable sequences, including 105 from the C2-V3 region of env and 87 from the protease and reverse transcriptase genes of pol [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of env

  • In the most extensively studied case, a predominant plasma sequence was also found in analysis of the env gene, and linkage by long-distance reverse transcriptase PCR established that these predominant plasma sequences represented a single predominant plasma virus clone [21].
  • Finally, Ab responses were enhanced by electroporation against both components of a combination HIV gag and env DNA vaccine in guinea pigs and rabbits [22].
  • Viral env and pol sequences were determined from genomic DNA isolated directly from tissues or co-cultures, and phylogenetic comparisons were performed [23].
  • Serial passage of the replicons containing the SIV-PBj14 gag or SIV-PBj14 env (SU) genes with a recombinant vaccinia virus, VV-P1, which provides P1 in trans, resulted in the encapsidation of these replicons [24].
  • The expression of spliced env, rec and np9 was investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers developed to discriminate between full-length and spliced mRNA [25].


  1. An env gene derived from a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate confers high in vivo replicative capacity to a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys. Reimann, K.A., Li, J.T., Voss, G., Lekutis, C., Tenner-Racz, K., Racz, P., Lin, W., Montefiori, D.C., Lee-Parritz, D.E., Lu, Y., Collman, R.G., Sodroski, J., Letvin, N.L. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. A dual superinfection and recombination within HIV-1 subtype B 12 years after primoinfection. Pernas, M., Casado, C., Fuentes, R., Pérez-Elías, M.J., López-Galíndez, C. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular evolution of human immunodeficiency virus env in humans and monkeys: similar patterns occur during natural disease progression or rapid virus passage. Hofmann-Lehmann, R., Vlasak, J., Chenine, A.L., Li, P.L., Baba, T.W., Montefiori, D.C., McClure, H.M., Anderson, D.C., Ruprecht, R.M. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. An effective AIDS vaccine based on live attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus recombinants. Rose, N.F., Marx, P.A., Luckay, A., Nixon, D.F., Moretto, W.J., Donahoe, S.M., Montefiori, D., Roberts, A., Buonocore, L., Rose, J.K. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. CXCR4/fusin is not a species-specific barrier in murine cells for HIV-1 entry. Tachibana, K., Nakajima, T., Sato, A., Igarashi, K., Shida, H., Iizasa, H., Yoshida, N., Yoshie, O., Kishimoto, T., Nagasawa, T. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. An association between HIV-1 subtypes and mode of transmission in Cape Town, South Africa. van Harmelen, J., Wood, R., Lambrick, M., Rybicki, E.P., Williamson, A.L., Williamson, C. AIDS (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Viral determinants of HIV-1 sufficient to extend tropism to macrophages are distinct from the determinants that control the cytopathic phenotype in HL-60 cells. DiFronzo, N.L., Pise-Masison, C.A., Fernandez-Larsson, R., Holland, C.A. AIDS (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Ubiquitination of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env glycoprotein. Bültmann, A., Eberle, J., Haas, J. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Differences in the fitness of two diverse wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates are related to the efficiency of cell binding and entry. Marozsan, A.J., Moore, D.M., Lobritz, M.A., Fraundorf, E., Abraha, A., Reeves, J.D., Arts, E.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Maintenance of glycoprotein-determined phenotype in an HIV type 1 (pNL43) env gene-cassetting system. Zheng, N.N., Daniels, R.S. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. HIV-1 encodes a sequence overlapping env gp41 with highly significant similarity to selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases. Taylor, E.W., Bhat, A., Nadimpalli, R.G., Zhang, W., Kececioglu, J. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B superinfection: evidence for differential immune containment of distinct clade B strains. Yang, O.O., Daar, E.S., Jamieson, B.D., Balamurugan, A., Smith, D.M., Pitt, J.A., Petropoulos, C.J., Richman, D.D., Little, S.J., Brown, A.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in free-ranging sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: implications for the origin of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus type 2. Santiago, M.L., Range, F., Keele, B.F., Li, Y., Bailes, E., Bibollet-Ruche, F., Fruteau, C., Noë, R., Peeters, M., Brookfield, J.F., Shaw, G.M., Sharp, P.M., Hahn, B.H. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA sequences in the female genital tract and blood: compartmentalization and intrapatient recombination. Philpott, S., Burger, H., Tsoukas, C., Foley, B., Anastos, K., Kitchen, C., Weiser, B. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytotoxic T cells and neutralizing antibodies induced in rhesus monkeys by virus-like particle HIV vaccines in the absence of protection from SHIV infection. Wagner, R., Teeuwsen, V.J., Deml, L., Notka, F., Haaksma, A.G., Jhagjhoorsingh, S.S., Niphuis, H., Wolf, H., Heeney, J.L. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutations in the env gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NDK isolates and the use of African green monkey CXCR4 as a co-receptor in COS-7 cells. Dumonceaux, J., Chanel, C., Valente, S., Quivet, L., Briand, P., Hazan, U. J. Gen. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetically and epidemiologically related "non-syncytium-inducing" isolates of HIV-1 display heterogeneous growth patterns in macrophages. Aquino-De Jesus, M.J., Anders, C., Miller, G., Sleasman, J.W., Goodenow, M.M., Andiman, W.A. J. Med. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Variable region 4 of SIV envelope correlates with rapid disease progression in morphine-exposed macaques infected with SIV/SHIV. Rivera-Amill, V., Noel, R.J., Orsini, S., Tirado, G., García, J.M., Buch, S., Kumar, A. Virology (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic analysis of the complete gag and env genes of HIV type 1 subtype C primary isolates from South Africa. Engelbrecht, S., de Villiers, T., Sampson, C.C., zur Megede, J., Barnett, S.W., van Rensburg, E.J. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. An epidemic of HIV type I CRF07_BC infection among injection drug users in Taiwan. Lin, H.H., Shih, Y.L., Liu, Y.C., Lee, S.S., Huang, C.K., Chen, Y.L., Chin, C., Lai, C.H., Tsai, H.C., Guo, Y.C., Zhang, L. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Residual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viremia in some patients on antiretroviral therapy is dominated by a small number of invariant clones rarely found in circulating CD4+ T cells. Bailey, J.R., Sedaghat, A.R., Kieffer, T., Brennan, T., Lee, P.K., Wind-Rotolo, M., Haggerty, C.M., Kamireddi, A.R., Liu, Y., Lee, J., Persaud, D., Gallant, J.E., Cofrancesco, J., Quinn, T.C., Wilke, C.O., Ray, S.C., Siliciano, J.D., Nettles, R.E., Siliciano, R.F. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Increased DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity by electroporation in vivo. Widera, G., Austin, M., Rabussay, D., Goldbeck, C., Barnett, S.W., Chen, M., Leung, L., Otten, G.R., Thudium, K., Selby, M.J., Ulmer, J.B. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 in the central nervous system: role of the choroid plexus. Burkala, E.J., He, J., West, J.T., Wood, C., Petito, C.K. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Poliovirus replicons that express the gag or the envelope surface protein of simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(smm) PBj14. Anderson, M.J., Porter, D.C., Fultz, P.N., Morrow, C.D. Virology (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus-K transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 proteins in melanomas and melanoma cell lines. Büscher, K., Hahn, S., Hofmann, M., Trefzer, U., Ozel, M., Sterry, W., Löwer, J., Löwer, R., Kurth, R., Denner, J. Melanoma Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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