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Gene Review

brp  -  bacteriorhodopsin-like protein

Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

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High impact information on brp

  • The in-frame deletion of blh, a brp paralog identified by analysis of the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome, reduced bacteriorhodopsin accumulation on solid medium but not in liquid [1].
  • As a step toward identifying cellular factors involved in this process, we constructed an in-frame deletion of brp, a gene implicated in bacteriorhodopsin biogenesis [1].
  • The simplest interpretation of these results is that brp and blh encode similar proteins that catalyze or regulate the conversion of beta-carotene to retinal [1].
  • The role of the brp gene in bacterio-opsin gene expression is unclear [2].
  • The DNA sequences immediately upstream of the bop and the brp genes have significant homologies and there is a short complementary sequence [2].

Biological context of brp

  • Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region, which is also located downstream of the previously characterized brp gene, revealed that it contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2,022 bp [3].
  • The bop gene cluster consists of at least three genes: bop (bacterio-opsin), brp (bacterio-opsin-related protein), and bat (bacterio-opsin activator) [4].

Anatomical context of brp


Regulatory relationships of brp

  • From these data, we propose a regulatory model involving two different mechanisms: (i) bat gene expression is induced under conditions of low oxygen tension and the bat gene product activates bop gene expression and (ii) light induces brp transcription, which stimulates or modulates bat transcription [4].

Other interactions of brp

  • When the cloned promoter was introduced into S9 mutant strains with insertions in either of two putative regulatory genes, brp and bat, no transcription was detectable, indicating that these genes serve to activate transcription from the bop promoter in trans [6].


  1. brp and blh are required for synthesis of the retinal cofactor of bacteriorhodopsin in Halobacterium salinarum. Peck, R.F., Echavarri-Erasun, C., Johnson, E.A., Ng, W.V., Kennedy, S.P., Hood, L., DasSarma, S., Krebs, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of a halobacterial gene affecting bacterio-opsin gene expression. Betlach, M., Friedman, J., Boyer, H.W., Pfeifer, F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of a second gene involved in bacterio-opsin gene expression in a halophilic archaebacterium. Leong, D., Pfeifer, F., Boyer, H., Betlach, M. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the bop gene cluster of Halobacterium halobium is induced by low oxygen tension and by light. Shand, R.F., Betlach, M.C. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcription of genes involved in bacterio-opsin gene expression in mutants of a halophilic archaebacterium. Leong, D., Boyer, H., Betlach, M. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic and topological analyses of the bop promoter of Halobacterium halobium: stimulation by DNA supercoiling and non-B-DNA structure. Yang, C.F., Kim, J.M., Molinari, E., DasSarma, S. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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