The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Gfpt1  -  glutamine fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2810423A18Rik, AI324119, AI449986, D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1, GFA, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Gfpt1

  • Immunization with PC, PS-liposomes containing unconjugated Gfpt1 and MPL stimulated the highest titers observed, thereby effectively preventing tumor growth in Balbc nu/nu-mice challenged with human small cell lung cancer cells [1].
  • Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, which plays an important role in glucose toxicity and cellular insulin resistance [2].
  • A 2.4-fold increase of GFA activity in muscle of the transgenic mice led to weight-dependent hyperinsulinemia in random-fed mice [3].
  • Increased flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway with glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate-amidotransferase (GFAT) as rate-limiting enzyme has been linked to the enhanced bioactivity of the prosclerotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in fibrotic complications, particularly in diabetic kidney disease [4].
  • Astroglia-specific protein (GFA) in clonal cell lines derived from the G26 mouse glioma [5].

High impact information on Gfpt1


Biological context of Gfpt1


Anatomical context of Gfpt1

  • We also compared the promoter activities of mouse GFAT1 and GFAT2 in several cell lines [2].
  • Precursor cells of GFA (glial fibrillary acidic) protein-positive astrocytes were cultured in a chemically defined medium as a homogeneous population [10].
  • For example, insulin resistance results when the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine synthesis, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA), is overexpressed in muscle and adipose tissue of transgenic mice [11].
  • This study points out 1) the capacity of astrocytes to synthesize surprisingly high amounts of soluble GFA at periods of intense metabolic activity, and 2) the reactivity of astrocytes in relation to the degree of deficiency of the myelinating oligodendrocytes [12].
  • In the jimpy mutant, practically devoid of myelin, the increase of GFA occurs but does not stop until death, at 25 days postnatal [12].

Associations of Gfpt1 with chemical compounds

  • Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) is the enzyme that is rate limiting in the synthesis of glucosamine and hexosamines [8].
  • The enzyme glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (L-glutamine:D-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase; EC, GFAT) catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine [13].
  • Overexpression of GFA in skeletal muscle thus leads to defects in glucose transport similar to those seen in type 2 diabetes [11].
  • Increased levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, the principal end-product of the hexosamine pathway were seen in transgenic fat, consistent with the overexpression of GFA [14].
  • Treatment of the transgenic animals with the thiazolidinedione troglitazone completely reversed the defect in glucose disposal without changing GFA activity or the levels of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gfpt1


  1. Effects of monophosphoryllipid-A on the immunization of mice with keyhole limpet hemocyanin- and muramyldipeptide-ganglioside Gfpt1 conjugates. Jennemann, R., Bauer, B.L., Schmidt, R., Elsässer, H.P., Wiegandt, H. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning and characterization of mouse glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 2 gene promoter. Yamazaki, K., Mizui, Y., Oki, T., Okada, M., Tanaka, I. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in transgenic mice leads to insulin resistance. Hebert, L.F., Daniels, M.C., Zhou, J., Crook, E.D., Turner, R.L., Simmons, S.T., Neidigh, J.L., Zhu, J.S., Baron, A.D., McClain, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Overexpression of glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate-amidotransferase induces transforming growth factor-beta1 synthesis in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Weigert, C., Brodbeck, K., Lehmann, R., Häring, H.U., Schleicher, E.D. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Astroglia-specific protein (GFA) in clonal cell lines derived from the G26 mouse glioma. Bignami, A., Stoolmiller, A.C. Brain Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Phosphorylation of mouse glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 2 (GFAT2) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the enzyme activity. Hu, Y., Riesland, L., Paterson, A.J., Kudlow, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Overexpression of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in the liver of transgenic mice results in enhanced glycogen storage, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance. Veerababu, G., Tang, J., Hoffman, R.T., Daniels, M.C., Hebert, L.F., Crook, E.D., Cooksey, R.C., McClain, D.A. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning and partial characterization of the mouse glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) gene promoter. Sayeski, P.P., Wang, D., Su, K., Han, I.O., Kudlow, J.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential effects of GLUT1 or GLUT4 overexpression on hexosamine biosynthesis by muscles of transgenic mice. Buse, M.G., Robinson, K.A., Marshall, B.A., Mueckler, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Cultured astrocytes form a syncytium after maturation. Fischer, G., Kettenmann, H. Exp. Cell Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanism of hexosamine-induced insulin resistance in transgenic mice overexpressing glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase: decreased glucose transporter GLUT4 translocation and reversal by treatment with thiazolidinedione. Cooksey, R.C., Hebert, L.F., Zhu, J.H., Wofford, P., Garvey, W.T., McClain, D.A. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Accumulation of GFA, the monomeric precursor of the gliofilaments, during development in normal mice and dysmyelinating mutants. Jacque, C., Lachapelle, F., Collier, P., Raoul, M., Baumann, N. J. Neurosci. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification and characterization of glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase from rat liver. Huynh, Q.K., Gulve, E.A., Dian, T. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Hexosamines stimulate leptin production in transgenic mice. McClain, D.A., Alexander, T., Cooksey, R.C., Considine, R.V. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Neuronal influence on antigenic marker profile, cell shape and proliferation of cultured astrocytes obtained by microdissection of distinct layers from the early postnatal mouse cerebellum. Nagata, I., Keilhauer, G., Schachner, M. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Glial fibrillary acidic protein. A cellular marker of tanycytes in the mouse hypothalamus. de Vitry, F., Picart, R., Jacque, C., Tixier-Vidal, A. Dev. Neurosci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of glucosamine synthesis in the stimulation of TGF-alpha gene transcription by glucose and EGF. Roos, M.D., Han, I.O., Paterson, A.J., Kudlow, J.E. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities