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Gene Review

pol  -  protease; reverse transcriptase; integrase

Bovine foamy virus

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Disease relevance of pol

  • The human foamy or spumaretrovirus (HSRV) is a complex retrovirus that encodes the three retroviral genes gag, pol, and env and, in addition, at least three bel genes [1].
  • The gag gene contains conserved splice acceptor and donor sites suggesting that, like human foamy virus, FeFV expresses its pol gene using a spliced mRNA [2].
  • SFV was isolated from three baboon subspecies (olive, yellow, and chacma baboons) and sequences from both the pol and the LTR regions of the provirus were amplified by PCR and sequenced [3].

High impact information on pol

  • To determine the minimal requirements for the HFV enzymatic activities, defined residues of the reverse transcriptase (RT) and ribo-nuclease H (RNase H) domain of the HFV pol gene were mutated by site-specific PCR mutagenesis [4].
  • The human foamy or spumaretrovirus HFV is a complex and exogenous retrovirus that encodes several bel genes besides the three classical retroviral genes gag, pol, and env [5].
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the polypurine tract (PPT) usually found at the 5' boundary of the 3'LTR of retroviruses, is duplicated in HSRV at the 3' end of the pol gene, near the gap [6].
  • Cis-acting sequences essentially required for marker gene transfer were found to be localized at two sites on the FFV genome: (i) in the 5'-untranslated region and close to the gag ATG and (ii) in the central part of the pol gene [7].
  • In addition to the usual retroviral gag, pol and env genes, two open reading frames are present between the env gene and the 3'-LTR, as in the simian spumaviruses, the first being the putative transactivator [2].

Other interactions of pol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pol


  1. Human foamy virus genome possesses an internal, Bel-1-dependent and functional promoter. Löchelt, M., Muranyi, W., Flügel, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of the complete sequence of feline spumavirus with those of the primate spumaviruses reveals a shorter gag gene. Helps, C.R., Harbour, D.A. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Simian foamy virus infections in a baboon breeding colony. Blewett, E.L., Black, D.H., Lerche, N.W., White, G., Eberle, R. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutational analysis of the reverse transcriptase and ribonuclease H domains of the human foamy virus. Kögel, D., Aboud, M., Flügel, R.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Increase in the basal transcriptional activity of the human foamy virus internal promoter by the homologous long terminal repeat promoter in cis. Löchelt, M., Aboud, M., Flügel, R.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Evidence for a gapped linear duplex DNA intermediate in the replicative cycle of human and simian spumaviruses. Kupiec, J.J., Tobaly-Tapiero, J., Canivet, M., Santillana-Hayat, M., Flügel, R.M., Périès, J., Emanoil-Ravier, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Feline foamy virus-mediated marker gene transfer: Identification of essential genetic elements and influence of truncated and chimeric proteins. Bastone, P., Bravo, I.G., Löchelt, M. Virology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and partial characterization of bovine foamy virus from Polish cattle. Materniak, M., Bicka, L., Ku??mak, J. Polish journal of veterinary sciences (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular biological characterization of the human foamy virus reverse transcriptase and ribonuclease H domains. Kögel, D., Aboud, M., Flügel, R.M. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
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