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Gene Review

BKPyVgp4  -  VP1

BK polyomavirus

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Disease relevance of BKPyVgp4

  • It was also shown that the 16S late mRNA from infected baby mouse kidney cells could be translated into a polypeptide which was identical to or similar to virion protein VP1 in every aspect examined, including the patter of peptide mapping by limited proteolysis [1].
  • The crystallographically determined structure of simian virus 40 shows that the 72 pentamers of viral protein VP1, which form the outer shell, have identical conformations except for the C-terminal arms of their subunits [2].
  • Data from earlier immunoblotting experiments demonstrated that rabbits inoculated i.v. with purified infectious BK virus produced antibodies not only to the viral structural protein VP1 but also to migrating polypeptides of a molecular mass ranging from 14-16 kDa [3].
  • Nuclear localization of avian polyomavirus structural protein VP1 is a prerequisite for the formation of virus-like particles [4].
  • We have identified two HLA-A*0201-restricted nine-amino-acid cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of the BKV major capsid protein VP1, VP1(p44), and VP1(p108) [5].

High impact information on BKPyVgp4

  • Temperature-sensitive (ts) assembly mutants of the tumorigenic virus simian virus 40 (SV40) fail to follow the normal pathway of virion morphogenesis at 40 degrees C. The mutations were previously mapped to the gene coding for the major virion protein VP1 and fall into three groups: tsB, tsBC, and tsC [6].
  • Blot hybridization analysis of poly(A)-selected RNA demonstrated that the level of synthesis of the major late structural protein VP-1 in COS-1 cells was due to increased transcription [7].
  • The functionally bicistronic major late 16S and functionally tricistronic major late 19S mRNA species of SV40 contain the leader-encoded open reading frames (ORFs) LP1, located upstream of the sequence encoding the virion protein VP1, and LP1*, located upstream of the sequence encoding the virion proteins VP2 and VP3 [8].
  • When these two progeny virion types were labeled in vivo with 32P and subjected to isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophroesis in the second dimension, differences in the phosphorylation pattern of the major virus-encoded structural protein VP1 species were observed [9].
  • Because the engineering of these genomes created a defect in the structural protein VP1, their DNA replicating activities could be compared without the complication of secondary infection of adjacent cells and amplification of the replication signal [10].

Biological context of BKPyVgp4


Anatomical context of BKPyVgp4

  • In the present study, BKV were analyzed to determine if mutations in the non-coding control region (NCCR), and specific BKV sub-types defined by sequence analysis of major capsid protein VP1, were associated with development of hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients [14].
  • Based on the present results, we propose that autologous dsDNA can be rendered immunogenic through complex formation with viral DNA binding protein(s) such as the structural protein VP1 or the tumour antigen T. Such DNA-protein complexes may bypass a putative T-cell tolerance to autologous dsDNA [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BKPyVgp4


  1. Ability of nonpermissive mouse cells to express a simian virus 40 late function(s). Lange, M., May, E., May, P. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Structure of simian virus 40 at 3.8-A resolution. Liddington, R.C., Yan, Y., Moulai, J., Sahli, R., Benjamin, T.L., Harrison, S.C. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Inoculation with BK virus may break immunological tolerance to histone and DNA antigens. Flaegstad, T., Fredriksen, K., Dahl, B., Traavik, T., Rekvig, O.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Nuclear localization of avian polyomavirus structural protein VP1 is a prerequisite for the formation of virus-like particles. Johne, R., Müller, H. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Interplay of cellular and humoral immune responses against BK virus in kidney transplant recipients with polyomavirus nephropathy. Chen, Y., Trofe, J., Gordon, J., Du Pasquier, R.A., Roy-Chaudhury, P., Kuroda, M.J., Woodle, E.S., Khalili, K., Koralnik, I.J. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations in the simian virus 40 gene encoding virion protein 1. Behm, M., Lowman, H., Ng, S.C., Bina, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Stimulation of simian virus 40 late gene expression by simian virus 40 tumor antigen. Brady, J., Bolen, J.B., Radonovich, M., Salzman, N., Khoury, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Leader-encoded open reading frames modulate both the absolute and relative rates of synthesis of the virion proteins of simian virus 40. Sedman, S.A., Good, P.J., Mertz, J.E. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Differences in biological activity and structural protein VP1 phosphorylation of polyomavirus progeny resulting from infection of primary mouse kidney and primary mouse embryo cell cultures. Ludlow, J.W., Consigli, R.A. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. DNA replication of chimeric JC virus-simian virus 40 genomes. Lynch, K.J., Haggerty, S., Frisque, R.J. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence of the simian virus 40 Hind-K restriction fragment. Rogiers, R., van de Voorde, A., Soeda, E., Fiers, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Cell-type specific targeting and gene expression using a variant of polyoma VP1 virus-like particles. Gleiter, S., Lilie, H. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of a DNA encapsidation sequence for human polyomavirus pseudovirion formation. Ou, W.C., Hseu, T.H., Wang, M., Chang, H., Chang, D. J. Med. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Unique BK virus non-coding control region (NCCR) variants in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with and without hemorrhagic cystitis. Carr, M.J., McCormack, G.P., Mutton, K.J., Crowley, B. J. Med. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Antibodies to eukaryotic, including autologous, native DNA are produced during BK virus infection, but not after immunization with non-infectious BK DNA. Rekvig, O.P., Fredriksen, K., Brannsether, B., Moens, U., Sundsfjord, A., Traavik, T. Scand. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular cloning and expression of major structural protein VP1 of the human polyomavirus JC virus: formation of virus-like particles useful for immunological and therapeutic studies. Goldmann, C., Petry, H., Frye, S., Ast, O., Ebitsch, S., Jentsch, K.D., Kaup, F.J., Weber, F., Trebst, C., Nisslein, T., Hunsmann, G., Weber, T., Lüke, W. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Generation of virus-like particles consisting of the major capsid protein VP1 of goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus and their application in serological tests. Zielonka, A., Gedvilaite, A., Ulrich, R., Lüschow, D., Sasnauskas, K., Müller, H., Johne, R. Virus Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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