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Gene Review

Lum  -  lumican

Mus musculus

Synonyms: KSPG lumican, Keratan sulfate proteoglycan lumican, Lcn, Ldc, Lumican, ...
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Disease relevance of Lum


High impact information on Lum

  • In this issue of Cell, new evidence indicates that autophagy is used to for survival when intracellular nutrients are limited by growth factor deprivation (Lum et al., 2005) [6].
  • The observed increased ratio of fibromodulin to lumican and a competition for the same binding site could mediate these transitions [7].
  • In lumican-deficient tendons, alterations were observed early and the mature tendon was nearly normal [7].
  • Fibromodulin-deficient tendons were comparable with the lumican-null in early developmental periods and acquired a severe phenotype by maturation [7].
  • This study establishes a crucial role for lumican in the regulation of collagen assembly into fibrils in various connective tissues [3].

Biological context of Lum


Anatomical context of Lum

  • Fibromodulin deficiency alone leads to significant reduction in tendon stiffness in the Lum(+/+)Fmod(-/-) mice, with further loss in stiffness in a Lum gene dose-dependent way [1].
  • In the current study, we examined the effect of lumican overexpression in corneas of wild type mice [10].
  • Lumican and fibromodulin regulate the assembly of collagens into higher order fibrils in connective tissues [1].
  • Conversely, the cruciate ligaments of the knee showed both an increase in LUM content and considerable structural abnormalities including the tendency towards rupture [11].
  • Biochemical and immunohistochemical investigation of FM-null articular cartilage showed a significant increase in tissue levels of lumican (LUM) [11].

Associations of Lum with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Lum

  • In tissues like the tendon, where both proteoglycans are present, fibromodulin may be required early in collagen fibrillogenesis to stabilize small-diameter fibril-intermediates and lumican may be needed at a later stage, primarily to limit lateral growth of fibrils[12]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that lumican binds FasL and facilitates induction of Fas [15].

Regulatory relationships of Lum


Other interactions of Lum


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lum


  1. A syndrome of joint laxity and impaired tendon integrity in lumican- and fibromodulin-deficient mice. Jepsen, K.J., Wu, F., Peragallo, J.H., Paul, J., Roberts, L., Ezura, Y., Oldberg, A., Birk, D.E., Chakravarti, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Ocular and scleral alterations in gene-targeted lumican-fibromodulin double-null mice. Chakravarti, S., Paul, J., Roberts, L., Chervoneva, I., Oldberg, A., Birk, D.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Lumican regulates collagen fibril assembly: skin fragility and corneal opacity in the absence of lumican. Chakravarti, S., Magnuson, T., Lass, J.H., Jepsen, K.J., LaMantia, C., Carroll, H. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence, molecular properties, and chromosomal mapping of mouse lumican. Funderburgh, J.L., Funderburgh, M.L., Hevelone, N.D., Stech, M.E., Justice, M.J., Liu, C.Y., Kao, W.W., Conrad, G.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Keratocan and lumican regulate neutrophil infiltration and corneal clarity in lipopolysaccharide-induced keratitis by direct interaction with CXCL1. Carlson, E.C., Lin, M., Liu, C.Y., Kao, W.W., Perez, V.L., Pearlman, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Eating oneself and uninvited guests: autophagy-related pathways in cellular defense. Levine, B. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential expression of lumican and fibromodulin regulate collagen fibrillogenesis in developing mouse tendons. Ezura, Y., Chakravarti, S., Oldberg, A., Chervoneva, I., Birk, D.E. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Lumican suppresses cell proliferation and aids Fas-Fas ligand mediated apoptosis: implications in the cornea. Vij, N., Roberts, L., Joyce, S., Chakravarti, S. Exp. Eye Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Exclusion of lumican and fibromodulin as candidate genes in MYP3 linked high grade myopia. Paluru, P.C., Scavello, G.S., Ganter, W.R., Young, T.L. Mol. Vis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Keratocan, a cornea-specific keratan sulfate proteoglycan, is regulated by lumican. Carlson, E.C., Liu, C.Y., Chikama, T., Hayashi, Y., Kao, C.W., Birk, D.E., Funderburgh, J.L., Jester, J.V., Kao, W.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Fibromodulin-null murine knee joints display increased incidences of osteoarthritis and alterations in tissue biochemistry. Gill, M.R., Oldberg, A., Reinholt, F.P. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Functions of lumican and fibromodulin: lessons from knockout mice. Chakravarti, S. Glycoconj. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Role of Cys41 in the N-terminal domain of lumican in ex vivo collagen fibrillogenesis by cultured corneal stromal cells. Carlson, E.C., Mamiya, K., Liu, C.Y., Gendron, R.L., Birk, D.E., Funderburgh, J.L., Kao, W.W. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel role of the lumican core protein in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immune response. Wu, F., Vij, N., Roberts, L., Lopez-Briones, S., Joyce, S., Chakravarti, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Lumican regulates corneal inflammatory responses by modulating Fas-Fas ligand signaling. Vij, N., Roberts, L., Joyce, S., Chakravarti, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) in uterine tissues during pregnancy in mice. San Martin, S., Soto-Suazo, M., De Oliveira, S.F., Aplin, J.D., Abrahamsohn, P., Zorn, T.M. Reproduction (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. TGFbeta2 in corneal morphogenesis during mouse embryonic development. Saika, S., Saika, S., Liu, C.Y., Azhar, M., Sanford, L.P., Doetschman, T., Gendron, R.L., Kao, C.W., Kao, W.W. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization and expression of the mouse lumican gene. Ying, S., Shiraishi, A., Kao, C.W., Converse, R.L., Funderburgh, J.L., Swiergiel, J., Roth, M.R., Conrad, G.W., Kao, W.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Corneal opacity in lumican-null mice: defects in collagen fibril structure and packing in the posterior stroma. Chakravarti, S., Petroll, W.M., Hassell, J.R., Jester, J.V., Lass, J.H., Paul, J., Birk, D.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Lumican is a major proteoglycan component of the bone matrix. Raouf, A., Ganss, B., McMahon, C., Vary, C., Roughley, P.J., Seth, A. Matrix Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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