The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Arr3  -  arrestin 3, retinal

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Arr4, Arrestin-C, CAR, Car, Carfl, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Arr3

  • A series of mCAR promoter-luciferase reporter constructs were transiently transfected into COS-7 or Weri-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells and tested in in vitro promoter assays [1].

High impact information on Arr3

  • We have now mimicked this TCPOBOP-dependent and OA-sensitive translocation of mouse CAR (mCAR) in HepG2 cells and have demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2A regulates this nuclear translocation [2].
  • Mutation of Ser-202 to Asp (S202D) prevented mCAR translocation into the nucleus of TCPOBOP-treated HepG2 cells [2].
  • GC1 and cone arrestin antibodies were used to identify photoreceptors transduced by the AAV vector and to localize cone arrestin within cone cells, respectively [3].
  • Staining patterns for cone arrestin in transduced and wild-type cone cells were indistinguishable after dark and light adaptation [3].
  • Light-driven cone arrestin translocation in cones of postnatal guanylate cyclase-1 knockout mouse retina treated with AAV-GC1 [3].

Biological context of Arr3


Anatomical context of Arr3


Associations of Arr3 with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of chimeric and mutant mCAR constructs suggested that androstenol sensitivity is controlled by residues between amino acids 201-263 (helices 5-7) and it does not depend on the residue 350 within helix 12, as previously suggested [6].

Other interactions of Arr3

  • RESULTS: Translocation of cone arrestin from cone outer segments to the inner cell regions was disrupted in the absence of GC1, whereas translocation of arrestin and Talpha in rods was not affected [7].
  • Nrl(-/-) photoreceptors express the mouse UV cone pigment, cone transducin, and cone arrestin in amounts expected, given the relative size and density of cones in the two retinas [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Arr3

  • In situ and immunohistochemistry both reveal cone-specific expression of mCAR in the retina [5].
  • The protein expression pattern of mCAR in the postnatal developmental and adult mouse retina was analyzed by immunoblotting in normal C57 and rd/rd mouse retinas [5].
  • To examine whether Ser-202 can be phosphorylated, flag-tagged wild-type mCAR or flag-tagged S202A mutant was expressed in HepG2 cells and subjected to Western blot analysis using an antibody specific to a peptide containing phospho-Ser-202 [2].
  • Yeast two-hybrid assays indicated that steroids inhibit mCAR primarily by promoting association of mCAR with the corepressor NCoR, with only minor contribution from other mechanisms [6].
  • Immunoprecipitation with affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against either mouse cone arrestin (mCAR) or mouse S and M cone opsins revealed specific binding of mCAR to light-activated, phosphorylated cone opsins [9].


  1. Deciphering the contribution of known cis-elements in the mouse cone arrestin gene to its cone-specific expression. Pickrell, S.W., Zhu, X., Wang, X., Craft, C.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Serine 202 regulates the nuclear translocation of constitutive active/androstane receptor. Hosseinpour, F., Moore, R., Negishi, M., Sueyoshi, T. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Light-driven cone arrestin translocation in cones of postnatal guanylate cyclase-1 knockout mouse retina treated with AAV-GC1. Haire, S.E., Pang, J., Boye, S.L., Sokal, I., Craft, C.M., Palczewski, K., Hauswirth, W.W., Semple-Rowland, S.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mouse cone arrestin gene characterization: promoter targets expression to cone photoreceptors. Zhu, X., Ma, B., Babu, S., Murage, J., Knox, B.E., Craft, C.M. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Mouse cone arrestin expression pattern: light induced translocation in cone photoreceptors. Zhu, X., Li, A., Brown, B., Weiss, E.R., Osawa, S., Craft, C.M. Mol. Vis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular determinants of steroid inhibition for the mouse constitutive androstane receptor. Jyrkkärinne, J., Mäkinen, J., Gynther, J., Savolainen, H., Poso, A., Honkakoski, P. J. Med. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. GC1 deletion prevents light-dependent arrestin translocation in mouse cone photoreceptor cells. Coleman, J.E., Semple-Rowland, S.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cone-like morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological features of the photoreceptors of the Nrl knockout mouse. Daniele, L.L., Lillo, C., Lyubarsky, A.L., Nikonov, S.S., Philp, N., Mears, A.J., Swaroop, A., Williams, D.S., Pugh, E.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. GRK1-dependent phosphorylation of S and M opsins and their binding to cone arrestin during cone phototransduction in the mouse retina. Zhu, X., Brown, B., Li, A., Mears, A.J., Swaroop, A., Craft, C.M. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities