The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

unc-15  -  Protein UNC-15

Caenorhabditis elegans

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of paramyosin


High impact information on paramyosin

  • Mutant embryos in which cleavage arrests prematurely also generate cells that produce myosin and paramyosin [3].
  • Specific antibodies to myosin and paramyosin, major protein constituents of differentiated muscle, react with mesodermal cells in wild-type embryos towards the end of the first half of embryogenesis [3].
  • In CB1214 mutants where paramyosin is absent, beta-filagenin assembled with myosin to form abnormal tubular filaments with a periodicity identical to wild type [4].
  • Within these regions, MHC A displays a more hydrophobic rod surface, making it more similar to paramyosin, which forms the thick filament core [5].
  • The organization of myosin heavy chains (mhc) A and B and paramyosin (pm) which are the major proteins of thick filaments in adult wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans were studied during embryonic development [6].

Biological context of paramyosin

  • All three regions contain three copies of a Ser-*-Ser-*-Ala motif, the most likely target for phosphorylation in paramyosin, suggesting that these regions may be modified by the same kinase [7].
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans paramyosin gene (unc-15) was identified by screening with specific antibodies an "exon-expression" library containing lacZ/nematode gene fusions [1].
  • Analysis of the in vitro phosphorylated paramyosin in comparison with the DNA sequence of the unc-15 paramyosin gene of C. elegans shows that serine residues in the non-alpha-helical N-terminal region are the targets of the kinase [7].
  • Myosin isoforms A and B are located at the surface of the central and polar regions, respectively, of thick filaments in body muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas paramyosin and a distinct core structure comprise the backbones of these filaments [8].
  • Prior studies have shown that such immunization stimulates a much stronger antibody response to recombinant and native filarial paramyosin than that seen after normal infection [9].

Anatomical context of paramyosin

  • Myosin heavy chains A and B and paramyosin proteins appear to be compatible with functionally and structurally distinct muscle cell types that arise by multiple developmental pathways [10].
  • By polarized light microscopy of body wall muscle, unc-96 mutants display reduced myofibrillar organization and characteristic birefringent "needles." By immunofluorescent staining of known myofibril components, unc-96 mutants show major defects in the organization of M-lines and in the localization of a major thick filament component, paramyosin [11].
  • A region of the myosin rod important for interaction with paramyosin in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle [12].
  • In the present study, we demonstrate the B cell epitope of paramyosin recognized by SJ18 epsilon [13].
  • The thick (myosin) myofilaments show a variable length (from 2.2 microns up to 6 microns) and width (from 14 nm up to 231 nm) and contain a central core of paramyosin, which is absent in vertebrate muscles [14].

Associations of paramyosin with chemical compounds

  • Here we describe the structure of the gene coding for the paramyosin of T. solium [15].
  • Several leucine zippers are located on the hydrophobic face of the alpha-helix in paramyosin which, together with disulfide bonds between cysteines, are probably involved in the stabilization of the dimer [16].
  • We have characterized 20 ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations in essential genes closely linked to unc-15 [17].

Physical interactions of paramyosin

  • The major paramyosin species interacts with the two genetically specified myosin heavy chain isoforms [18].

Regulatory relationships of paramyosin

  • In mutants that do not express MHC B or that express defective paramyosin, muscle structure is disrupted and movement is impaired [19].

Other interactions of paramyosin

  • The N-terminal region of paramyosin has significant similarity to the non-helical C-terminal region of the two body wall myosin heavy chains of C. elegans [7].
  • Similar calculations suggest optimal interactions between paramyosin molecules and myosin rods and in their anti-parallel alignments [1].
  • The six proteins also cosedimented with thick filaments purified by gradient centrifugation from CB190 mutants lacking myosin heavy chain B and from CB1214 mutants lacking paramyosin [20].
  • The suppression pattern of the suppressor against the two muscle-affecting genes, unc-15 and unc-52, suggested that either the suppressors are expressed in a developmental stage-specific manner or that the unc-52 products are expressed in cell-types other than muscle, possibly hypodermis [21].
  • In the 0.65 map-unit interval around unc-15 defined by dpy-14 and unc-56, seven newly identified genes have been mapped relative to five existing genes [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of paramyosin


  1. Paramyosin gene (unc-15) of Caenorhabditis elegans. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence and models for thick filament structure. Kagawa, H., Gengyo, K., McLachlan, A.D., Brenner, S., Karn, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Filarial paramyosin: cDNA sequences from Dirofilaria immitis and Onchocerca volvulus. Limberger, R.J., McReynolds, L.A. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Muscle differentiation in normal and cleavage-arrested mutant embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans. Gossett, L.A., Hecht, R.M., Epstein, H.F. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. beta-Filagenin, a newly identified protein coassembling with myosin and paramyosin in Caenorhabditis elegans. Liu, F., Bauer, C.C., Ortiz, I., Cook, R.G., Schmid, M.F., Epstein, H.F. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Hydrophobicity variations along the surface of the coiled-coil rod may mediate striated muscle myosin assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hoppe, P.E., Waterston, R.H. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Myosin and paramyosin of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos assemble into nascent structures distinct from thick filaments and multi-filament assemblages. Epstein, H.F., Casey, D.L., Ortiz, I. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Phosphorylation of the N-terminal region of Caenorhabditis elegans paramyosin. Schriefer, L.A., Waterson, R.H. J. Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. The alteration of myosin isoform compartmentation in specific mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans. Epstein, H.F., Ortiz, I., Mackinnon, L.A. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Vaccination with recombinant filarial paramyosin induces partial immunity to Brugia malayi infection in jirds. Li, B.W., Chandrashekar, R., Weil, G.J. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunochemical localization of myosin heavy chain isoforms and paramyosin in developmentally and structurally diverse muscle cell types of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ardizzi, J.P., Epstein, H.F. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-96 is a new component of M-lines that interacts with UNC-98 and paramyosin and is required in adult muscle for assembly and/or maintenance of thick filaments. Mercer, K.B., Miller, R.K., Tinley, T.L., Sheth, S., Qadota, H., Benian, G.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. A region of the myosin rod important for interaction with paramyosin in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle. Hoppe, P.E., Waterston, R.H. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The B cell epitope of paramyosin recognized by a protective monoclonal IgE antibody to Schistosoma japonicum. Nara, T., Tanabe, K., Mahakunkijcharoen, Y., Osada, Y., Matsumoto, N., Kita, K., Kojima, S. Vaccine (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Ultrastructure of invertebrate muscle cell types. Paniagua, R., Royuela, M., García-Anchuelo, R.M., Fraile, B. Histol. Histopathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Gene structure of Taenia solium paramyosin. Vargas-Parada, L., Laclette, J.P. Parasitol. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin: developmental pattern, mapping and properties deduced from its complete coding sequence. Vinós, J., Maroto, M., Garesse, R., Marco, R., Cervera, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic organization of the region around UNC-15 (I), a gene affecting paramyosin in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rose, A.M., Baillie, D.L. Genetics (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Assemblases and coupling proteins in thick filament assembly. Liu, F., Barral, J.M., Bauer, C.C., Ortiz, I., Cook, R.G., Schmid, M.F., Epstein, H.F. Cell Struct. Funct. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Myosin heavy chain gene amplification as a suppressor mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Maruyama, I.N., Miller, D.M., Brenner, S. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Purified thick filaments from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: evidence for multiple proteins associated with core structures. Epstein, H.F., Berliner, G.C., Casey, D.L., Ortiz, I. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic and molecular analysis of eight tRNA(Trp) amber suppressors in Caenorhabditis elegans. Kondo, K., Makovec, B., Waterston, R.H., Hodgkin, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Construction of Onchocerca volvulus cDNA libraries and partial characterization of the cDNA for a major antigen. Donelson, J.E., Duke, B.O., Moser, D., Zeng, W.L., Erondu, N.E., Lucius, R., Renz, A., Karam, M., Flores, G.Z. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of Drosophila paramyosin: identification of a novel isoform which is restricted to a subset of adult muscles. Becker, K.D., O'Donnell, P.T., Heitz, J.M., Vito, M., Bernstein, S.I. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities