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Gene Review

ttx-3  -  Protein TTX-3

Caenorhabditis elegans

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High impact information on ttx-3

  • Two other LIM homeobox genes, ttx-3 and lin-11, function in the two interneurons AIY and AIZ, respectively [1].
  • Regulation of interneuron function in the C. elegans thermoregulatory pathway by the ttx-3 LIM homeobox gene [2].
  • In ttx-3 mutant animals, the AIY interneuron is generated but exhibits patterns of abnormal axonal outgrowth [2].
  • We describe a set of differentiation markers characteristic for the AIY interneuron class and show that the ceh-10 paired-type and ttx-3 LIM-type homeobox genes function to regulate all known subtype-specific features of the AIY interneurons [3].
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the regulatory relationship between ceh-10, ttx-3 and ceh-23 is only partially conserved in other neurons in the nervous system [3].

Associations of ttx-3 with chemical compounds

  • Lastly, we analyze a mutant allele of the ser-2 tyramine receptor, a target of the ttx-3 Lhx gene in the AIY interneuron class. ser-2 mutants display none of the defects previously shown to be associated with loss of AIY function [4].

Other interactions of ttx-3

  • In mutants of the gene wrk-1, an immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) member whose expression is regulated by ttx-3, capacitance matured normally, whereas outward current matured precociously [5].


  1. The LIM homeobox gene ceh-14 confers thermosensory function to the AFD neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cassata, G., Kagoshima, H., Andachi, Y., Kohara, Y., Dürrenberger, M.B., Hall, D.H., Bürglin, T.R. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of interneuron function in the C. elegans thermoregulatory pathway by the ttx-3 LIM homeobox gene. Hobert, O., Mori, I., Yamashita, Y., Honda, H., Ohshima, Y., Liu, Y., Ruvkun, G. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. A regulatory cascade of three homeobox genes, ceh-10, ttx-3 and ceh-23, controls cell fate specification of a defined interneuron class in C. elegans. Altun-Gultekin, Z., Andachi, Y., Tsalik, E.L., Pilgrim, D., Kohara, Y., Hobert, O. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. LIM homeobox gene-dependent expression of biogenic amine receptors in restricted regions of the C. elegans nervous system. Tsalik, E.L., Niacaris, T., Wenick, A.S., Pau, K., Avery, L., Hobert, O. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Developmental regulation of whole cell capacitance and membrane current in identified interneurons in C. elegans. Faumont, S., Boulin, T., Hobert, O., Lockery, S.R. J. Neurophysiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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