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Gene Review

Plxna2  -  plexin A2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 2810428A13Rik, AA589422, AW457381, Kiaa0463, OCT, ...
 
 
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Disease relevance of Plxna2

  • It is concluded that OCT may be useful, either as a single agent or in combination with bisphosphonates, for the treatment of cancer-associated hypercalcemia and cachexia [1].
  • The anticachectic activity of their combination did not exceed that of OCT alone, suggesting a hypercalcemia-dependent as well as an independent mechanism of cancer cachexia [1].
  • However, the mechanism underlying the antihypercalcemic effect of OCT seemed complex, involving inhibition of PTHrP production, suppression of excessive bone resorption, and an antitumor activity [1].
  • OCT also markedly inhibited the body weight loss with tumor growth, while AHPrBP, which exhibited a similar antihypercalcemic effect, was less effective than OCT in preventing cachexia [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution spectral-domain OCT provides unprecedented high-quality 2D and 3D in vivo visualization of retinal structures of mouse and rat models of retinal diseases [2].
 

High impact information on Plxna2

 

Chemical compound and disease context of Plxna2

 

Biological context of Plxna2

  • The addition of a TGF-beta(1)-neutralizing antibody to the OCT-treated MC-E cells blocked this inhibitory effect for cell proliferation and attenuated the up-regulated mRNA levels [6].
  • The OCT images compared well with histology [2].
  • The antiproliferative effect was observed with a concentration as low as 10(-11) M OCT, and treatment of MCF-7 cells with 10(-8) M OCT for 8 days caused more than a 50% reduction in cell number compared with that of vehicle-treated cells [7].
  • Therefore, the 5' flanking sequence of the rat OCT gene seems to be sufficient for the developmental and tissue-specific expression of the gene [11].
  • Expression of the transgene in the intestine was comparable to that of the endogenous mouse OCT gene, whereas expression in the liver was much lower than that of the endogenous gene [11].
 

Anatomical context of Plxna2

 

Associations of Plxna2 with chemical compounds

  • Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by the vitamin D analog 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (22-oxacalcitriol; OCT) rather than by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1, 25(OH)(2)D(3)) in a dose-dependent manner [6].
  • OCT was approximately 1 order of magnitude more potent than 1,25-(OH)2D3 in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells [7].
  • The antitumor effect of 1 microgram/kg BW OCT was greater than that of 500 microgram/kg BW adriamycin, and the relative tumor weights in each group on day 26 were 29.7% and 50.5% of that in the vehicle-treated group, respectively [7].
  • Eyes from the rho gamma mice were either fixed in zinc formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or were frozen in OCT compound and processed for immunostaining using the indirect immunoperoxidase method with DAB as a chromogen [16].
  • The 8540-fold-purified OCT exhibited a specific activity of 526 micromoles citrulline per minute per milligram of protein at 35 degrees C and pH 8 [17].
 

Physical interactions of Plxna2

 

Other interactions of Plxna2

 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plxna2

  • Also, Northern blot analysis showed molecular heterogeneity in mouse plexin 2 mRNAs [19].
  • After perfusion fixation, the lungs were removed, embedded in OCT compound, snap-frozen, and processed for stereology [20].
  • Neither intratumor nor oral administration of OCT raised the serum calcium level in these animals [7].
  • With the capability of 3D quantitative information extraction and precise spatial registration, the OCT system made possible longitudinal study of ocular diseases that has been impossible to conduct [2].
  • PURPOSE: To demonstrate the application of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for three-dimensional (3D) retinal imaging of small animals and quantitative retinal information extraction using 3D segmentation of the OCT images [2].

References

  1. Effect of combination treatment with a vitamin D analog (OCT) and a bisphosphonate (AHPrBP) in a nude mouse model of cancer-associated hypercalcemia. Endo, K., Katsumata, K., Iguchi, H., Kubodera, N., Teramoto, T., Ikeda, K., Fujita, T., Ogata, E. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. In vivo three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of rodent retina with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ruggeri, M., Wehbe, H., Jiao, S., Gregori, G., Jockovich, M.E., Hackam, A., Duan, Y., Puliafito, C.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Fyn and Cdk5 mediate semaphorin-3A signaling, which is involved in regulation of dendrite orientation in cerebral cortex. Sasaki, Y., Cheng, C., Uchida, Y., Nakajima, O., Ohshima, T., Yagi, T., Taniguchi, M., Nakayama, T., Kishida, R., Kudo, Y., Ohno, S., Nakamura, F., Goshima, Y. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The basic helix-loop-helix-zipper domain of TFE3 mediates enhancer-promoter interaction. Artandi, S.E., Cooper, C., Shrivastava, A., Calame, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of the B cell-specific transcriptional coactivator OCA-B and galectin-1 and a possible role in regulating BCR-mediated B cell proliferation. Yu, X., Siegel, R., Roeder, R.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A vitamin D analog regulates mesangial cell smooth muscle phenotypes in a transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor-mediated manner. Abe, H., Iehara, N., Utsunomiya, K., Kita, T., Doi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel vitamin D3 analog, 22-oxa-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, inhibits the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Abe, J., Nakano, T., Nishii, Y., Matsumoto, T., Ogata, E., Ikeda, K. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo time-course of receptor binding in the parathyroid gland of the vitamin D analogue [(3)H]1,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D(3) compared with [(3)H]1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), determined by micro-autoradiography. Koike, N., Hayakawa, N., Tokuda, K., Nishimiya, K., Saito, K., Stumpf, W.E. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduction of ochratoxin A toxicity in mice treated with phenylalanine and phenobarbital. Moroi, K., Suzuki, S., Kuga, T., Yamazaki, M., Kanisawa, M. Toxicol. Lett. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Cholangiocarcinoma cells express somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and respond to octreotide treatment. Zhao, B., Zhao, H., Zhao, N., Zhu, X.G. Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of the rat ornithine carbamoyltransferase gene in transgenic mice. Murakami, T., Takiguchi, M., Inomoto, T., Yamamura, K., Mori, M. Dev. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Vaginal transmission of HIV-1 in hu-SCID mice: a new model for the evaluation of vaginal microbicides. Di Fabio, S., Giannini, G., Lapenta, C., Spada, M., Binelli, A., Germinario, E., Sestili, P., Belardelli, F., Proietti, E., Vella, S. AIDS (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Myelotoxicity and macrophage alteration in mice exposed to ochratoxin A. Boorman, G.A., Hong, H.L., Dieter, M.P., Hayes, H.T., Pohland, A.E., Stack, M., Luster, M.I. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Nuclear receptors for 1,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D3 (OCT) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in gastric gland neck mucous cells and gastrin enteroendocrine cells. Stumpf, W.E., Hayakawa, N., Koike, N., Hirate, J., Okazaki, A. Histochem. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Antithyroglobulin monoclonal and autoantibodies cross-react with an orbital connective tissue membrane antigen: a possible mechanism for the association of ophthalmopathy with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Kuroki, T., Ruf, J., Whelan, L., Miller, A., Wall, J.R. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Transgenic mice expressing IFN-gamma in the retina develop inflammation of the eye and photoreceptor loss. Geiger, K., Howes, E., Gallina, M., Huang, X.J., Travis, G.H., Sarvetnick, N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification of ornithine carbamoyltransferase from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves and comparison of the properties of the enzyme from canavanine-containing and -deficient plants. Lee, Y., Jun, B.O., Kim, S.G., Kwon, Y.M. Planta (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Plexin-A2 and its ligand, Sema6A, control nucleus-centrosome coupling in migrating granule cells. Renaud, J., Kerjan, G., Sumita, I., Zagar, Y., Georget, V., Kim, D., Fouquet, C., Suda, K., Sanbo, M., Suto, F., Ackerman, S.L., Mitchell, K.J., Fujisawa, H., Chédotal, A. Nat. Neurosci. (2008) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of plexin family molecules in mice. Kameyama, T., Murakami, Y., Suto, F., Kawakami, A., Takagi, S., Hirata, T., Fujisawa, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. A precise and efficient stereological method for determining murine lung metastasis volumes. Nielsen, B.S., Lund, L.R., Christensen, I.J., Johnsen, M., Usher, P.A., Wulf-Andersen, L., Frandsen, T.L., Danø, K., Gundersen, H.J. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
 
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