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Gene Review

Prm1  -  protamine 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Cysteine-rich protamine, Prm-1, Sperm protamine P1
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Disease relevance of Prm1


High impact information on Prm1


Chemical compound and disease context of Prm1


Biological context of Prm1

  • To accomplish this we generated transgenic animals that carry a Prm1 transgene lacking its normal 3' untranslated region [1].
  • Premature translation of Prm1 mRNA caused precocious condensation of spermatid nuclear DNA, abnormal head morphogenesis, and incomplete processing of Prm2 protein [1].
  • Addition of a blocking monoclonal antibody against the Kit receptor (ACK2) inhibited extensively the appearance of haploid cells and the expression of a haploid-phase-specific gene (Prm1) [13].
  • Separate elements in the 3' untranslated region of the mouse protamine 1 mRNA regulate translational repression and activation during murine spermatogenesis [14].
  • Surprisingly, the binding site for this activity maps to a region of the Prm-1 3' UTR not contained within the functional 62 nucleotides described above [14].

Anatomical context of Prm1


Associations of Prm1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Prm1


Regulatory relationships of Prm1


Other interactions of Prm1

  • While this protein lacks complete specificity for Prm-1-containing RNAs in vitro, the properties of Prbp are consistent with it acting as a general repressor of translation [15].
  • Reciprocal regulation of the mouse protamine genes by the orphan nuclear receptor germ cell nuclear factor and CREMtau [28].
  • Chromosomal assignment of four rat genes coding for the spermatid-specific proteins proacrosin (ACR), transition proteins 1 (TNP1) and 2 (TNP2), and protamine 1 (PRM1) [29].
  • Translational repression of protamine 1 (Prm1) mRNA requires sequences present in its 3' untranslated region (UTR) and substantial evidence suggests a role for the murine Y-box protein MSY4 in this process [30].
  • Comparison of the nucleotide sequences for Stp-1 and the mouse gene coding for protamine P1 suggests a possible evolutionary relationship [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prm1


  1. Premature translation of protamine 1 mRNA causes precocious nuclear condensation and arrests spermatid differentiation in mice. Lee, K., Haugen, H.S., Clegg, C.H., Braun, R.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. A double-stranded RNA binding protein required for activation of repressed messages in mammalian germ cells. Zhong, J., Peters, A.H., Lee, K., Braun, R.E. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of four genes encoding basic proteins of the porcine spermatid nucleus and close linkage of three of them. Keime, S., Heitland, K., Kumm, S., Schlösser, M., Hroch, N., Holtz, W., Engel, W. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Synaptopodin regulates the actin-bundling activity of alpha-actinin in an isoform-specific manner. Asanuma, K., Kim, K., Oh, J., Giardino, L., Chabanis, S., Faul, C., Reiser, J., Mundel, P. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein can function independently from heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis. Warshawsky, I., Herz, J., Broze, G.J., Schwartz, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Packaging paternal chromosomes with protamine. Braun, R.E. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Transmeiotic differentiation of male germ cells in culture. Rassoulzadegan, M., Paquis-Flucklinger, V., Bertino, B., Sage, J., Jasin, M., Miyagawa, K., van Heyningen, V., Besmer, P., Cuzin, F. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Spnr, a murine RNA-binding protein that is localized to cytoplasmic microtubules. Schumacher, J.M., Lee, K., Edelhoff, S., Braun, R.E. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Low molecular weight protamine: a potent but nontoxic antagonist to heparin/low molecular weight protamine. Byun, Y., Chang, L.C., Lee, L.M., Han, I.S., Singh, V.K., Yang, V.C. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification of togavirus haemagglutinins by chromatography on controlled pore glass. Frisch-Niggemeyer, W. Acta Virol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Assessment of murine bladder permeability with fluorescein: validation with cyclophosphamide and protamine. Eichel, L., Scheidweiler, K., Kost, J., Shojaie, J., Schwarz, E., Messing, E., Wood, R. Urology (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. In vitro and in vivo effect of heparin, chondroitin, dextran and protamine on the virulence of pseudorabies virus (Suid herpesvirus 1). Ramos-Kuri, M., Kretschmer, R.R., Espinosa-Larios, E.L., Aguilar-Setién, A. Archivos de investigación médica. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Stage-specific expression of the Kit receptor and its ligand (KL) during male gametogenesis in the mouse: a Kit-KL interaction critical for meiosis. Vincent, S., Segretain, D., Nishikawa, S., Nishikawa, S.I., Sage, J., Cuzin, F., Rassoulzadegan, M. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Separate elements in the 3' untranslated region of the mouse protamine 1 mRNA regulate translational repression and activation during murine spermatogenesis. Fajardo, M.A., Haugen, H.S., Clegg, C.H., Braun, R.E. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. A testis cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein that has the properties of a translational repressor. Lee, K., Fajardo, M.A., Braun, R.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Mapping of haploid expressed genes: genes for both mouse protamines are located on chromosome 16. Hecht, N.B., Kleene, K.C., Yelick, P.C., Johnson, P.A., Pravtcheva, D.D., Ruddle, F.H. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Spermatid-specific expression of protamine 1 in transgenic mice. Peschon, J.J., Behringer, R.R., Brinster, R.L., Palmiter, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Mouse protamine 2 is synthesized as a precursor whereas mouse protamine 1 is not. Yelick, P.C., Balhorn, R., Johnson, P.A., Corzett, M., Mazrimas, J.A., Kleene, K.C., Hecht, N.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding mouse protamine 1. Kleene, K.C., Distel, R.J., Hecht, N.B. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential decondensation of class I (rat) and class II (mouse) spermatozoa nuclei by physiological concentrations of heparin and glutathione. Sánchez-Vázquez, M.L., Reyes, R., Delgado, N.M., Merchant-Larios, H., Rosado, A. Arch. Androl. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunoregulatory activity of peptides related to platelet factor 4. Zucker, M.B., Katz, I.R., Thorbecke, G.J., Milot, D.C., Holt, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. HANP1/H1T2, a novel histone H1-like protein involved in nuclear formation and sperm fertility. Tanaka, H., Iguchi, N., Isotani, A., Kitamura, K., Toyama, Y., Matsuoka, Y., Onishi, M., Masai, K., Maekawa, M., Toshimori, K., Okabe, M., Nishimune, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Germ cell-specific proteins interact with the 3' untranslated regions of Prm-1 and Prm-2 mRNA. Fajardo, M.A., Butner, K.A., Lee, K., Braun, R.E. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. A sequence-specific RNA binding complex expressed in murine germ cells contains MSY2 and MSY4. Davies, H.G., Giorgini, F., Fajardo, M.A., Braun, R.E. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Demonstration of a testis-specific trans-acting factor Tet-1 in vitro that binds to the promoter of the mouse protamine 1 gene. Tamura, T., Makino, Y., Mikoshiba, K., Muramatsu, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Protamine inhibits platelet derived growth factor receptor activity but not epidermal growth factor activity. Huang, J.S., Nishimura, J., Huang, S.S., Deuel, T.F. J. Cell. Biochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Cationic cholesterol promotes gene transfection using the nuclear localization signal in protamine. Noguchi, A., Hirashima, N., Nakanishi, M. Pharm. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Reciprocal regulation of the mouse protamine genes by the orphan nuclear receptor germ cell nuclear factor and CREMtau. Hummelke, G.C., Cooney, A.J. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Chromosomal assignment of four rat genes coding for the spermatid-specific proteins proacrosin (ACR), transition proteins 1 (TNP1) and 2 (TNP2), and protamine 1 (PRM1). Adham, I.M., Szpirer, C., Kremling, H., Keime, S., Szpirer, J., Levan, G., Engel, W. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Translational repression by MSY4 inhibits spermatid differentiation in mice. Giorgini, F., Davies, H.G., Braun, R.E. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Nucleotide sequence of the Stp-1 gene coding for rat spermatid nuclear transition protein 1 (TP1): homology with protamine P1 and assignment of the mouse Stp-1 gene to chromosome 1. Heidaran, M.A., Kozak, C.A., Kistler, W.S. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Translational activity of mouse protamine 1 messenger ribonucleoprotein particles in the reticulocyte and wheat germ cell-free translation systems. Kleene, K.C., Smith, J. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Analysis of hamster protamines: primary sequence and species distribution. Corzett, M., Kramer, C., Blacher, R., Mazrimas, J., Balhorn, R. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Localization of protamine 1 mRNA in different stages of the cycle of the rat seminiferous epithelium. Mali, P., Sandberg, M., Vuorio, E., Yelick, P.C., Hecht, N.B., Parvinen, M. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Reversible block of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor by protamine, a heparin antidote. Koulen, P., Ehrlich, B.E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Assay of protamine messenger RNA from rainbow trout testis. Gedamu, L., Dixon, G.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
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