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Gene Review

Sds  -  serine dehydratase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 4432411H13Rik, L-serine deaminase, L-serine dehydratase/L-threonine deaminase, L-threonine dehydratase, SDH, ...
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Disease relevance of Sds

  • Additional evidence against the restriction of 20 alpha SDH to T lymphocytes is found in its presence in peritoneal macrophages, myelomonocytic and macrophage-like cell lines, and the L929 fibrosarcoma line [1].
  • Thus, TdT-positive and 20 alpha SDH-positive T-cell lymphomas can be distinguished by their homing properties [2].
  • By comparison, analysis of the large glycolytic triceps muscle, a forelimb muscle which does not receive pseudomyotonia, indicated that this muscle did not increase in SDH activity in dystrophic animals, which showed the abnormal increase in the activity of the hind limb gastrocnemius [3].
  • In control retinae, high SDH activities were localized in the inner segments, outer plexiform, inner plexiform, and ganglion cells layers and high alkaline phosphatase activities were localized in the ganglion cell layers and the vessels of the plexiform layers [4].

High impact information on Sds

  • Regulatory genes linked to the albino locus in the mouse confer competence for inducible expression on the structural gene encoding serine dehydratase [5].
  • Even though, in deletion homozygotes, serine dehydratase is expressed normally on the constitutive level, hormone-inducible expression fails to develop [5].
  • Biochemical analysis of supernatants of activated astrocytes revealed that the IL 3-like factor that stimulated 32DCL cells and the expression of 20 alpha SDH also served as a growth factor for cultured peritoneal macrophages [6].
  • In cultures of normal splenic lymphocytes, two populations of cells capable of expressing 20 alpha SDH were detected [7].
  • 20 alpha SDH is induced in nu/nu spleen and in normal fetal liver cells by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as well as by interleukin 3 [1].

Biological context of Sds

  • All the cell lines have readily detectable levels of 20 alpha SDH but have differing cell surface phenotypes [8].
  • The kinetics of the SDH effect were investigated by inserting an interval between a primary 44.7 degrees C/10 min treatment and a test treatment performed at 42.2 degrees C. The effect of step-down heating was maximal with no interval between the priming treatment and the test treatment [9].
  • The increase in SDH activity with long-term CR is consistent with sustained increase in gluconeogenesis [10].
  • The steroid 3 beta-diol increased marrow cell 20 alpha SDH activity but did not affect the thymus cell number [11].
  • 4. These results indicate that biosynthesis of SDH is induced by acclimation at 5 degrees C in diapause eggs of B. mori [12].

Anatomical context of Sds

  • There was an age-dependent increase of 20 alpha SDH activity in bone marrow cells, and a decrease in thymocytes and splenic T lymphocytes [13].
  • A model is proposed to explain the age- and sex-related changes in 20 alpha SDH activity of pre-T and T lymphocytes in healthy and pathologic conditions [13].
  • The 20 alpha SDH activity of fetal liver cells from B/W mice was twice as high as in either parent strain [13].
  • In vivo, the expression of 20 alpha SDH is thymus dependent, in that splenic lymphocytes from athymic mice have only low levels of activity, although the levels of enzyme activity increase gradually with age [14].
  • In the majority of cases the lymphomas consisted of 20 alpha SDH-positive cells that homed to spleen and lymph nodes upon transplantation [2].

Associations of Sds with chemical compounds

  • 20alpha SDH may protect the embryonic thymocytes against high concentrations of progesterone [15].
  • PHA stimulates both 20 alpha SDH activity and thymidine incorporation in splenic, bone marrow, and fetal liver lymphocytes [13].
  • The results of this study show that long-term CR influenced serine utilization only in the pathway catalyzed by SDH [10].
  • The kinetics of succinate (SDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenases were determined in single muscle fibres in unfixed sections of the gastrocnemius of dystrophic mdx mice (with an X-linked genetic disorder lacking a cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin) and age-matched C57BL/10 control mice [16].
  • It was found that testosterone, 5 alpha-DHT, 3 alpha-diol, Dianabole, T.P., and Noralone caused increases in the relative number of large cells and in activity of 20 alpha SDH in bone marrow [11].

Other interactions of Sds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sds


  1. Expression of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in mouse macrophages, hemopoietic cells, and cell lines and its induction by colony-stimulating factors. Hapel, A.J., Osborne, J.M., Fung, M.C., Young, I.G., Allan, W., Hume, D.A. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Different T-cell subtypes are associated with pathologically distinct forms of Moloney leukemia virus (M-MuLV)-induced lymphoma. Asjö, B., Skoog, L., Fenyö, E.M., Klein, G. Int. J. Cancer (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Age-related changes in oxidative capacity of the gastrocnemius muscle in normal and dystrophic (dy2J/dy2J) mice. Hargroder, G.T., Talmadge, R.J., Silverman, H. Exp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Histochemical responses in the retina after acute blood loss. Au, C.Y., Yew, D.T., Li, W.W. Zeitschrift für mikroskopisch-anatomische Forschung. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulatory genes linked to the albino locus in the mouse confer competence for inducible expression on the structural gene encoding serine dehydratase. Lia, M., Bali, D., Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Astrocyte-derived interleukin 3 as a growth factor for microglia cells and peritoneal macrophages. Frei, K., Bodmer, S., Schwerdel, C., Fontana, A. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Interleukins 2 and 3 regulate the in vitro proliferation of two distinguishable populations of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-positive cells. Keller, J.R., Weinstein, Y., Hursey, M., Ihle, J.N. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Phenotypic characteristics of cell lines requiring interleukin 3 for growth. Ihle, J.N., Keller, J., Greenberger, J.S., Henderson, L., Yetter, R.A., Morse, H.C. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Sensitization to hyperthermia induced in a normal tissue by step-down heating. Lindegaard, J.C., Nielsen, O.S. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Serine utilization in mouse liver: influence of caloric restriction and aging. Hagopian, K., Ramsey, J.J., Weindruch, R. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of testosterone metabolites and of anabolic androgens on the bone marrow and thymus in castrated female mice. Weinstein, Y., Isakov, Y. Immunopharmacology (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Biosynthesis of NAD-sorbitol dehydrogenase is induced by acclimation at 5 degrees C in diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Niimi, T., Yaginuma, T. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. 20 alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha SDH) activity in New Zealand mice T lymphocytes and bone marrow cells: effect of age, sex, and castration. Fuks, A.S., Weinstein, Y. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Regulation of T cell differentiation: in vitro induction of 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in splenic lymphocytes from athymic mice by a unique lymphokine. Ihle, J.N., Pepersack, L., Rebar, L. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a T lymphocyte-associated enzyme. Weinstein, Y. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Localisation and quantification of dehydrogenase activities in single muscle fibers of mdx gastrocnemius. Nakae, Y., Stoward, P.J., Shono, M., Matsuzaki, T. Histochem. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic control of serine dehydratase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in mice. Coleman, D.L. Biochem. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
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