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Gene Review

PACS2  -  phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KIAA0602, PACS-2, PACS1-like protein, PACS1L, Phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2
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High impact information on PACS2

  • Together, our results identify PACS-2 as a novel sorting protein that links the ER-mitochondria axis to ER homeostasis and the control of cell fate, and provide new insights into Bid action [1].
  • However, in response to apoptotic inducers, PACS-2 translocates Bid to mitochondria, which initiates a sequence of events including the formation of mitochondrial truncated Bid, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase-3, thereby causing cell death [1].
  • PACS-2 controls endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria communication and Bid-mediated apoptosis [1].
  • PACS-2 controls the apposition of mitochondria with the ER, as depletion of PACS-2 causes BAP31-dependent mitochondria fragmentation and uncoupling from the ER [1].
  • PACS-2 also controls formation of ER lipid-synthesizing centers found on mitochondria-associated membranes and ER homeostasis [1].

Anatomical context of PACS2


Associations of PACS2 with chemical compounds

  • A method is described for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in NRCC sediment CRM PACS-2 by isotope dilution (ID) analysis using HPLC-ICPMS [3].
  • Evaluation of accelerated solvent extraction for butyltin speciation in PACS-2 CRM using double-spike isotope dilution-GC/ICPMS [4].
  • The dibutyltin (DBT; 1.14 +/- 0.02 micrograms g-1) and tributyltin (TBT; 1.01 +/- 0.04 micrograms g-1) values observed in PACS-2 sediment closely matched the certified values (DBT, 1.09 +/- 0.15; TBT, 0.98 +/- 0.13 microgram g-1 as tin) [5].

Other interactions of PACS2

  • One third of attendances were treated and discharged quickly, allowing the consulting room and PACS 1/PACS 2 doctors to act more efficiently [6].
  • For the three extraction techniques tested, the DBT and TBT concentration values obtained for PACS-2 closely matched the certified values [7].
  • Overall uncertainties associated with the present method were estimated, where the sediment certified reference materials, PACS-2 and BCR 646, were analyzed [8].


  1. PACS-2 controls endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria communication and Bid-mediated apoptosis. Simmen, T., Aslan, J.E., Blagoveshchenskaya, A.D., Thomas, L., Wan, L., Xiang, Y., Feliciangeli, S.F., Hung, C.H., Crump, C.M., Thomas, G. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus K5 removes CD31/PECAM from endothelial cells. Mansouri, M., Douglas, J., Rose, P.P., Gouveia, K., Thomas, G., Means, R.E., Moses, A.V., Früh, K. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Species-specific isotope dilution-based calibration for trace element speciation and its combined uncertainty evaluation: determination of tributyltin in sediment by HPLC-ICPMS. Yang, L., Mester, Z., Sturgeon, R.E. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of accelerated solvent extraction for butyltin speciation in PACS-2 CRM using double-spike isotope dilution-GC/ICPMS. Encinar, J.R., Rodriguez-González, P., Fernandez, J.R., Alonso, J.I., Díez, S., Bayona, J.M., Sanz-Medelt, A. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. A quantitative extraction method for the determination of trace amounts of both butyl- and phenyltin compounds in sediments by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rajendran, R.B., Tao, H., Nakazato, T., Miyazaki, A. The Analyst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Avoiding prolonged waiting time during busy periods in the emergency department: is there a role for the senior emergency physician in triage? Travers, J.P., Lee, F.C. European journal of emergency medicine : official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Evaluation of extraction techniques for the determination of butyltin compounds in sediments using isotope dilution-GC/ICPMS with 118Sn and 119Sn-enriched species. Ruiz Encinar, J., Rodriguez Gonzalez, P., García Alonso, J.I., Sanz-Medel, A. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Species-specific isotope dilution analysis of mono-, di, and tri-butyltin compounds in sediment using gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with synthesized 118Sn-enriched butyltins. Inagaki, K., Takatsu, A., Watanabe, T., Aoyagi, Y., Okamoto, K. The Analyst. (2003) [Pubmed]
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