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Gene Review

Rb1  -  retinoblastoma 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Rb, Rb-1, Retinoblastoma-associated protein, pRb, pp105
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Disease relevance of Rb1


Psychiatry related information on Rb1


High impact information on Rb1

  • The retinoblastoma (RB) gene is one of the most extensively studied tumour-suppressor genes [8].
  • LNA-1 overcame the flat-cell phenotype induced by retinoblastoma protein in Saos2 cells [9].
  • These results indicate that there is an additional mechanism by which Rb suppresses cell growth, namely that Rb directly represses transcription of the rRNA genes [10].
  • The retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) is present in the unphosphorylated and active form in quiescent primary arterial SMCs, but is rapidly inactivated by phosphorylation in response to growth factor stimulation in vitro [11].
  • In Rat-1 cells, the phosphorylation-site-mutated (PSM)-RB, but not wild-type RB, can inhibit S-phase entry [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rb1


Biological context of Rb1


Anatomical context of Rb1


Associations of Rb1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Rb1


Enzymatic interactions of Rb1

  • Decreased p27 was correlated with increased levels of Cdk2 and increased levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein [30].

Regulatory relationships of Rb1


Other interactions of Rb1

  • Following HGF treatment retinoblastoma protein (pRB) was present in the hypophosphorylated state [36].
  • However, hypoxic conditions cause TFIIIB dissociation from c-Myc and ERK, at the same time as increasing its interaction with RB [31].
  • Using immunohistochemical approaches, we characterized cell types expressing MyoD, p21, and Rb and the relationship among these factors in the myonucleus of denervated muscles [22].
  • Forskolin significantly enhanced heregulin-stimulated expression of cyclin D and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product [37].
  • For the above reasons, RB and RB2/P130 may have a role in neural differentiation but not in neural determination [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rb1

  • Molecular analysis of neural differentiation markers and immunocytochemistry revealed that RB2/p130 contributes mainly to the induction of generic neural properties and RB triggers cholinergic differentiation [18].
  • In addition, we quantitatively examined the time course changes and expression patterns among distinct myofiber types of MyoD, p21, and Rb during denervation [22].
  • A cDNA of the rat retinoblastoma gene (RB) was prepared from total RNA of rat liver using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [39].
  • As determined by appropriate combinations of immunoprecipitations, Western blots, and kinase activity assays, it was found that levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma and E2F-1 were significantly reduced by ER (approximately 40 and 75%, respectively; P < 0.01), an effect that was partially reversed by ER-REP [2].
  • Western blot analysis showed that onychin inhibited Rb phosphorylation and reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. The effects of onychin on proliferation, the cell cycle and the expression of cyclins in VSMCs were similar to those of genistein, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase [40].


  1. Tolbutamide reduces glioma cell proliferation by increasing connexin43, which promotes the up-regulation of p21 and p27 and subsequent changes in retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Sánchez-Alvarez, R., Paíno, T., Herrero-González, S., Medina, J.M., Tabernero, A. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of energy restriction on cell cycle machinery in 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinomas in rats. Jiang, W., Zhu, Z., Thompson, H.J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated cell cycle arrest is achieved through distinct cell-specific transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Rogatsky, I., Trowbridge, J.M., Garabedian, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Reciprocal activity of ginsenosides in the production of proinflammatory repertoire, and their potential roles in neuroprotection in vivo. Joo, S.S., Won, T.J., Lee, d.o. .I. Planta Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on central cholinergic metabolism. Benishin, C.G., Lee, R., Wang, L.C., Liu, H.J. Pharmacology (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Preliminary study on antiamnestic mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1. Zhang, J.T., Qu, Z.W., Liu, Y., Deng, H.L. Chin. Med. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Negative acting HLH proteins Id 1, Id 2, Id 3, and Id 4 are expressed in prostate epithelial cells. Chaudhary, J., Schmidt, M., Sadler-Riggleman, I. Prostate (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A retinoblastoma-binding protein that affects cell-cycle control and confers transforming ability. Woitach, J.T., Zhang, M., Niu, C.H., Thorgeirsson, S.S. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. The latent nuclear antigen of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus targets the retinoblastoma-E2F pathway and with the oncogene Hras transforms primary rat cells. Radkov, S.A., Kellam, P., Boshoff, C. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Activity of RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF blocked by Rb gene product. Cavanaugh, A.H., Hempel, W.M., Taylor, L.J., Rogalsky, V., Todorov, G., Rothblum, L.I. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Cytostatic gene therapy for vascular proliferative disorders with a constitutively active form of the retinoblastoma gene product. Chang, M.W., Barr, E., Seltzer, J., Jiang, Y.Q., Nabel, G.J., Nabel, E.G., Parmacek, M.S., Leiden, J.M. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by RB: effects on G1/S transition and S-phase progression. Knudsen, E.S., Buckmaster, C., Chen, T.T., Feramisco, J.R., Wang, J.Y. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Relationship of polymorphisms near the rat prolactin, N-ras, and retinoblastoma genes with susceptibility to estrogen-induced pituitary tumors. Shepel, L.A., Gorski, J. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the rat N-ras and retinoblastoma genes: their identification and characterization. Shepel, L.A., Gorski, J. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Differential requirements for ras and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein in the androgen dependence of prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Fribourg, A.F., Knudsen, K.E., Strobeck, M.W., Lindhorst, C.M., Knudsen, E.S. Cell Growth Differ. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Alterations of the retinoblastoma-related gene RB2/p130 in lung adenocarcinomas induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats. Tsujiuchi, T., Sasaki, Y., Konishi, Y., Tsutsumi, M. Mol. Carcinog. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Epidermal growth factor-induced rapid retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser780 and Ser795 is mediated by ERK1/2 in small intestine epithelial cells. Guo, J., Sheng, G., Warner, B.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. RB and RB2/p130 genes demonstrate both specific and overlapping functions during the early steps of in vitro neural differentiation of marrow stromal stem cells. Jori, F.P., Melone, M.A., Napolitano, M.A., Cipollaro, M., Cascino, A., Giordano, A., Galderisi, U. Cell Death Differ. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor targets dNTP metabolism to regulate DNA replication. Angus, S.P., Wheeler, L.J., Ranmal, S.A., Zhang, X., Markey, M.P., Mathews, C.K., Knudsen, E.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Beta-escin inhibits colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats and regulates the cell cycle growth by inducing p21(waf1/cip1) in colon cancer cells. Patlolla, J.M., Raju, J., Swamy, M.V., Rao, C.V. Mol. Cancer Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Mitogen-induced rapid phosphorylation of serine 795 of the retinoblastoma gene product in vascular smooth muscle cells involves ERK activation. Garnovskaya, M.N., Mukhin, Y.V., Vlasova, T.M., Grewal, J.S., Ullian, M.E., Tholanikunnel, B.G., Raymond, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. In vivo expression patterns of MyoD, p21, and Rb proteins in myonuclei and satellite cells of denervated rat skeletal muscle. Ishido, M., Kami, K., Masuhara, M. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Ras-regulated hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein mediates neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Li, H., Kawasaki, H., Nishida, E., Hattori, S., Nakamura, S. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Modulation of cyclin D1 and early growth response factor-1 gene expression in interleukin-1beta-treated rat smooth muscle cells by n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bousserouel, S., Raymondjean, M., Brouillet, A., Béréziat, G., Andréani, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Ferulic acid inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by angiotensin II. Hou, Y.Z., Yang, J., Zhao, G.R., Yuan, Y.J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of G1 cyclin expression in normal rat kidney cells by inostamycin, a phosphatidylinositol synthesis inhibitor. Deguchi, A., Imoto, M., Umezawa, K. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. G1 cyclins are involved in the mechanism of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II. Nozato, T., Ito, H., Tamamori, M., Adachi, S., Abe, S., Marumo, F., Hiroe, M. Jpn. Circ. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Maximal aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity depends on an interaction with the retinoblastoma protein. Elferink, C.J., Ge, N.L., Levine, A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Transcriptional activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene in an H-ras and v-myc transformed rat embryo cell line. Himelstein, B.P., Lee, E.J., Sato, H., Seiki, M., Muschel, R.J. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Induction of Id1 and Id3 by latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus and regulation of p27/Kip and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in rodent fibroblast transformation. Everly, D.N., Mainou, B.A., Raab-Traub, N. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Hypoxic stress suppresses RNA polymerase III recruitment and tRNA gene transcription in cardiomyocytes. Ernens, I., Goodfellow, S.J., Innes, F., Kenneth, N.S., Derblay, L.E., White, R.J., Scott, P.H. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands inhibit retinoblastoma phosphorylation and G1--> S transition in vascular smooth muscle cells. Wakino, S., Kintscher, U., Kim, S., Yin, F., Hsueh, W.A., Law, R.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Cdc2 and Cdk2 kinase activated by transforming growth factor-beta1 trigger apoptosis through the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein in FaO hepatoma cells. Choi, K.S., Eom, Y.W., Kang, Y., Ha, M.J., Rhee, H., Yoon, J.W., Kim, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. TGF-beta 1 inhibits DNA synthesis and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product in a rat liver epithelial cell line. Whitson, R.H., Itakura, K. J. Cell. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification and characterization of the putative retinoblastoma control element of the rat insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 gene. Kutoh, E., Margot, J.B., Schwander, J. Cancer Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. HGF-mediated apoptosis via p53/bax-independent pathway activating JNK1. Conner, E.A., Teramoto, T., Wirth, P.J., Kiss, A., Garfield, S., Thorgeirsson, S.S. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Synergistic regulation of Schwann cell proliferation by heregulin and forskolin. Rahmatullah, M., Schroering, A., Rothblum, K., Stahl, R.C., Urban, B., Carey, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Role of RB and RB2/P130 genes in marrow stromal stem cells plasticity. Jori, F.P., Napolitano, M.A., Melone, M.A., Cipollaro, M., Cascino, A., Giordano, A., Galderisi, U. J. Cell. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Isolation and sequence polymorphism of a rat retinoblastoma (RB) cDNA. Esumi, M., Idutsu, T., Kinugasa, S., Ohno, M., Nakabayashi, H., Ikeda, T., Shikata, T. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Onychin inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells by regulating cell cycle. Yang, M., Huang, H.L., Zhu, B.Y., Tuo, Q.H., Liao, D.F. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2005) [Pubmed]
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