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Gene Review

efflux  -  cation efflux family protein

Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987

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Disease relevance of efflux


High impact information on efflux

  • Measurements of releasable platelet factor 4 and the efflux of serotonin showed that no release reaction was triggered even when up to 45% of the total phospholipid in the platelets was hydrolyzed [2].
  • Furthermore, some experiments in this paper have been designed to explore the mechanism of ceramide-induced efflux [3].
  • Large unilamellar vesicles composed of different phospholipids and cholesterol, and containing entrapped fluorescent molecules, have been used as a system to assay ceramide-dependent efflux [3].
  • Under our conditions 10 mol % of N-acetylsphingosine (C(2)-ceramide) did not induce any efflux [3].
  • Membrane efflux induced either by in situ generated ceramides (through enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin) or by addition of ceramides to preformed membranes has been studied [3].

Biological context of efflux


Anatomical context of efflux

  • An increase in the level of [3H]cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins was observed after degradation of plasma membrane sphingomyelin with exogenous sphingomyelinase, in-contrast to earlier reports, where no such effect was observed [4].
  • Their ionophore properties were studied on human erythrocytes by measuring Na+ influx with 23Na NMR and concomitant K+ and H+ efflux by potentiometry [6].

Associations of efflux with chemical compounds

  • In fact, the combination of slow uptake and efficient efflux seems to be crucial to the characteristic poor susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin [7].
  • These results suggest the presence of an efflux mechanism for toluene in strain R1 [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of efflux


  1. Uptake kinetics of nucleic acid targeting dyes in S. aureus, E. faecalis and B. cereus: a flow cytometric study. Walberg, M., Gaustad, P., Steen, H.B. J. Microbiol. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The effect of phospholipase C on human blood platelets. Otnaess, A.B., Holm, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Membrane restructuring via ceramide results in enhanced solute efflux. Montes, L.R., Ruiz-Argüello, M.B., Goñi, F.M., Alonso, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine appears not to affect the cellular cholesterol distribution. Pörn, M.I., Ares, M.P., Slotte, J.P. J. Lipid Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. GerN, an endospore germination protein of Bacillus cereus, is an Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiporter. Southworth, T.W., Guffanti, A.A., Moir, A., Krulwich, T.A. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Ionophore properties of monensin derivatives studied on human erythrocytes by 23Na NMR and K+ and H+ potentiometry: relationship with antimicrobial and antimalarial activities. Rochdi, M., Delort, A.M., Guyot, J., Sancelme, M., Gibot, S., Gourcy, J.G., Dauphin, G., Gumila, C., Vial, H., Jeminet, G. J. Med. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Influence of the cell wall on ciprofloxacin susceptibility in selected wild-type Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Berlanga, M., Montero, M.T., Hernández-Borrell, J., Viñas, M. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of the solvent-tolerant Bacillus cereus strain R1. Matsumoto, M., de Bont, J.A., Isken, S. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2002) [Pubmed]
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