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Gene Review

GAPDH  -  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

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Disease relevance of GAPD


High impact information on GAPD

  • In this report, we show that hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain activates the three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage found in aortic endothelial cells by inhibiting GAPDH activity [6].
  • Anti-TnT antibodies were found to be unreactive with 1) skeletal and nonmuscle isoforms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a glycolytic enzyme that shares some structural homologies with skeletal TnT, and 2) calponin, a TnT-like calmodulin/tropomyosin binding protein with some antigenic properties in common with TnT [7].
  • In contrast, oxidations of cysteinyl side chains in proteins, where disulfide bond formation can be prevented and where the reactivity of the nascent cysteine-sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) can be controlled, have previously been shown to yield stable active-site Cys-SOH derivatives of papain and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [8].
  • A plasma membrane preparation of Ehrlich cells, mainly consisting of vesicles, showed the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase but the absence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [9].
  • Eighty percent of this surface-located 3-phosphoglycerate kinase was released into the assay medium during incubation, while the release of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, at the same time, was minimal [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of GAPD


Biological context of GAPD


Anatomical context of GAPD


Associations of GAPD with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GAPD


Other interactions of GAPD


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAPD

  • The messenger RNA (mRNA) concentrations of beta 2-adrenergic receptors, beta ARK-I and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (as a reference), as determined by quantitative PCR, were unaffected by fenoterol treatment [22].
  • By PhosphorImaging of Northern blots, we report that the eNOS/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) messenger RNA (mRNA) ratio in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) increased by 4.8- and 7.95-fold after 6-hr shear stress exposure of 4 and 25 dynes/cm2, respectively [23].
  • Effects of gestational age (GA), passage number (p), and hormonal treatment on appearance of specific mRNAs were determined by RT-PCR; relative concentrations of products determined by densitometry were analyzed as the ratio of target cDNA to the GAPDH loading control [24].
  • Relative amounts of OT-NP I and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA in endometrium were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting [25].
  • In addition, GPDH digested with V8 protease and analyzed by one dimensional peptide mapping presented the same pattern for the three cell types examined [26].


  1. Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction activates the hexosamine pathway and induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by increasing Sp1 glycosylation. Du, X.L., Edelstein, D., Rossetti, L., Fantus, I.G., Goldberg, H., Ziyadeh, F., Wu, J., Brownlee, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of endothelial cell glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression by hypoxia. Graven, K.K., Troxler, R.F., Kornfeld, H., Panchenko, M.V., Farber, H.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene as a useful taxonomic tool for Staphylococcus spp. Yugueros, J., Temprano, A., Berzal, B., Sánchez, M., Hernanz, C., Luengo, J.M., Naharro, G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of two proteins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine clinical mastitis with homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Goji, N., Potter, A.A., Perez-Casal, J. Vet. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The housekeeping genes GAPDH and cyclophilin are regulated by metabolic state in the liver of dairy cows. Rhoads, R.P., McManaman, C., Ingvartsen, K.L., Boisclair, Y.R. J. Dairy Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibition of GAPDH activity by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activates three major pathways of hyperglycemic damage in endothelial cells. Du, X., Matsumura, T., Edelstein, D., Rossetti, L., Zsengellér, Z., Szabó, C., Brownlee, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Troponin T- and troponin I-like proteins in bovine vascular smooth muscle. Zanellato, A.M., Borrione, A.C., Saggin, L., Giuriato, L., Schiaffino, S., Sartore, S. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Protein-sulfenic acid stabilization and function in enzyme catalysis and gene regulation. Claiborne, A., Miller, H., Parsonage, D., Ross, R.P. FASEB J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Enzyme activities at the surface of intact Ehrlich tumor cells with albumin in the isotonic assay medium. Wernstedt, C.O., Agren, G.K., Ronquist, G. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Hypoxic regulation of endothelial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Graven, K.K., McDonald, R.J., Farber, H.W. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a GABAA receptor kinase linking glycolysis to neuronal inhibition. Laschet, J.J., Minier, F., Kurcewicz, I., Bureau, M.H., Trottier, S., Jeanneteau, F., Griffon, N., Samyn, B., Van Beeumen, J., Louvel, J., Sokoloff, P., Pumain, R. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a major protein associated with the plasma membrane of retinal photoreceptor outer segments. Hsu, S.C., Molday, R.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Sinusoidal length oscillation- and receptor-mediated mRNA expression of myosin isoforms and alpha-SM actin in airway smooth muscle. Wahl, M., Eddinger, T.J., Hai, C.M. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of retinol-binding protein messenger RNA and retinoic acid receptors in preattachment bovine embryos. Mohan, M., Malayer, J.R., Geisert, R.D., Morgan, G.L. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Glycolysis and glutamate accumulation into synaptic vesicles. Role of glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase. Ikemoto, A., Bole, D.G., Ueda, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Glycolytic enzyme interactions with tubulin and microtubules. Walsh, J.L., Keith, T.J., Knull, H.R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase form a complex. Filonenko, V.V., Beresten, S.F., Rubikaite, B.I., Kisselev, L.L. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos. Goossens, K., Van Poucke, M., Van Soom, A., Vandesompele, J., Van Zeveren, A., Peelman, L.J. BMC Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of certain protein substrates in vitro requires the molecular chaperone Hsc70. Bercovich, B., Stancovski, I., Mayer, A., Blumenfeld, N., Laszlo, A., Schwartz, A.L., Ciechanover, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Modification of proteins in endothelial cell death during oxidative stress. Ciolino, H.P., Levine, R.L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. S100 beta is a target protein of neurocalcin delta, an abundant isoform in glial cells. Okazaki, K., Obata, N.H., Inoue, S., Hidaka, H. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Tocolytic therapy with fenoterol induces selective down-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in human myometrium. Engelhardt, S., Zieger, W., Kassubek, J., Michel, M.C., Lohse, M.J., Brodde, O.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Shear stress induction of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is calcium-dependent but not calcium-activated. Xiao, Z., Zhang, Z., Ranjan, V., Diamond, S.L. J. Cell. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of estrogen receptor and maintenance of hormone-responsive phenotype in bovine fetal uterine cells. Malayer, J.R., Woods, V.M. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Oxytocin-neurophysin I mRNA abundance in equine uterine endometrium. Behrendt-Adam, C.Y., Adams, M.H., Simpson, K.S., McDowell, K.J. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Immunocytochemical localization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in cultured endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Hodor, P., Heltianu, C. Microcirculation, endothelium, and lymphatics. (1989) [Pubmed]
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